Archivi categoria: Loan art, arte presa a prestito

Cambridge University: the residence of the head of a college. Qui invece trattasi di una selezione di notizie ricavate da altri siti per un uso e consumo culturale e didattico, senza nessun scopo di lucro. I banner purtroppo che si vedono non sono di nostra “authotity”.

Atomic Bomb Blast at Hiroshima, Nagasaki and Crossroads into Bikini

Gli “Incroci” di Bruce Conner catturano il potere ipnotico dei test nucleari americani negli anni ’40, da ogni possibile angolazione. Gli schermi cinematografici fanno parte del Plastik Festival 2017 che si svolge dal 24 al 26 marzo presso l’IFI e in altri luoghi della città.
[Bruce Conner’s ‘Crossroads’ captures the mesmerising power of American nuclear weapons tests in the 1940s, from every possible angle.]


The new Crossroads Baker


La nuova sequenza Bakers di Crossroads da “Trinity and Beyond” 70th Anniversary Tribute. La nuova versione include nuovi filmati, sequenze più lunghe e restauro migliorato. Ora 100 minuti!
The Blu-Ray version is now available and only at our Atomic Store: http://atomcentralstore.mybigcommerce… Visit the following URL to purchase or rent and download the new version (credit cards only): http://atomcentral.vhx.tv/
Atomic Bomb Blast at Hiroshima August 6 and 9, 1945 Irfan Chughtai

Pubblicato il 1 mar 2011
Film giapponesi di esplosione di una bomba atomica a Hiroshima, rilasciati un anno dopo. Lo scoppio subacqueo dell’atomo oscilla il bikini. Ammiraglio Blandy comandante della task force, secondo test di Operazione Crossroads, telecamere puntano al luogo dell’esplosione subacquea Test Baker, fungo atomico esplosivo, portante Saratoga finalmente affonda un’altra visuale dell’esplosione dell’aeroplano aereo. Questo film fa parte della collezione: Universal Newsreels Production Company: Universal Studios
Hiroshima: Dropping The Bomb – Hiroshima – BBC

BBC Studios – Pubblicato il 14 mar 2017
Ascolta racconti di prima mano dall’aria e dal terreno, ri-raccontando ogni ricordo dal giorno in cui il mondo ha assistito per la prima volta agli orrori della guerra atomica. Tratto da Hiroshima Iscriviti al canale di BBC Studios: http: //www.youtube.com/subscription_c … Canale di BBC Studios: http://www.youtube.com/BBCStudios
Atomic bombing of Nagasaki
Accounts of the American justification for dropping a second bomb in Nagasaki. From the BBC

HD Amazing underwater atomic explosion 1946 operation crossroads nuclear testing
Pubblicato il 17 apr 2016

facebook: https: //www.facebook.com/TheCentralnu … Arequipa -Perú.
Nome: Baker Date time (UTC): 24 luglio 1946 21: 34: 59.8 Località: NE Lagoon, Bikini Atoll 11.59 ° N 165.50 ° E Altezza + Altezza: 0 – 27.5 m (90 ft)
Consegna: Subacquea
Scopo: Effetto delle armi
Dispositivo: Mk III “Helen of Bikini” Resa: 23 kt In Baker il 25 luglio, l’arma è stata sospesa sotto il mezzo da sbarco LSM-60 ancorato nel mezzo della flotta bersaglio. Baker è stato fatto detonare a 90 piedi (27 m) sott’acqua, a metà strada verso il fondo in acqua a 180 piedi (55 m) di profondità. Come / Mike Hour era alle 08:35. Nessuna parte identificabile di LSM-60 è mai stata trovata; presumibilmente fu vaporizzato dalla palla di fuoco nucleare. Dieci navi vennero affondate, tra cui l’incrociatore pesante tedesco Prinz Eugen, che affondò a dicembre, cinque mesi dopo il test, perché la radioattività impediva di riparare una perdita nello scafo. Le fotografie di Baker sono uniche tra le immagini di detonazione nucleare. Il lampo accecante che di solito oscura l’area del bersaglio si è verificato sott’acqua e si è visto a malapena. L’immagine chiara delle navi in ​​primo piano e sullo sfondo dà un senso di scala. La grande nuvola di Wilson e la colonna d’acqua verticale sono caratteristiche distintive del colpo di Baker. Una foto mostra un marchio in cui si trovava la corazzata da 27.000 tonnellate della USS Arkansas. Come con Able, tutte le navi che erano rimaste a galla entro 1.000 m (914 m) dalla detonazione venivano distrutte.
Original Colour Film of Baker Atom Bomb at Bikini Atoll * July 1,1946

Pubblicato il 25 mar 2017
Operation Crossroads 1946, esplosione di una bomba nucleare in mare con i suoi effetti sulle navi e sugli atolli di bikini. filmati molto interessanti da Trinity and Beyond. Il test nucleare al programma Bikini Atoll è stato una serie di 23 dispositivi nucleari fatti esplodere dal. Video qualitativi della prima esplosione nucleare sottomarina condotta a una profondità di 27 metri nella laguna di Bikini Atoll, il 25 luglio 1946 Video da National. Operation Crossroads era una serie di due test nucleari condotti dagli Stati Uniti all’Atollo Bikini a metà del 1946. Erano la prima arma nucleare.

CODE RED [Codice rosso]

May 02, 2018 •

Maclain and Chapman Way, Wild Wild Country, 2018, still from a TV show on Netflix. Episode 1.

“YES SHE POISONED A WHOLE TOWN, BUT . . .” a friend texts me after watching the recent Netflix documentary series Wild Wild Country (2018), and it is a popular response to Ma Anand Sheela, the true heroine of the show. The six-episode film presents an extraordinary amount of footage from the four years of Rajneeshpuram, a 63,000-acre ranch in Wasco County, Oregon, which began to be built in 1981. The five thousand people who lived at Rajneeshpuram wanted to be with their Bhagwan (the Hindi word for God), Rajneesh, who is better known by the name Osho. The Rajneeshees flipped bananas instead of bacon, got violent during therapy, and left behind their families, high-profile jobs, and sometimes children. They also built check dams, planted trees, irrigated farms, put in solar power, and laid out thousands of square feet of lawn carpet. They had an airport and a fleet of customized Rajneesh Air aircrafts. They were rich, smart, and were being led by a woman of intensifying prowess: Sheela, Rajneesh’s personal secretary and power of attorney.Sheela was not just a small-town girl. At her peak she was managing millions and escalating wildly: attempted murder, assault, wire-tapping, and arson. Whether she is indeed guilty of these charges is totally beside the point. Sheela teases open a moral spectrum. She has an innate ability to incense white TV presenters that try to catch her in a lie and trap her with their questions, which is her most delicious quality: She will raise her voice well before the moment calls for it, and speak about herself in third person. She won’t quit serving iconic soft-butch looks.[“SÌ HAI AVVELENATO UN INTERO PAESE, MA… “Un amico mi manda un messaggio dopo aver visto la recente serie di documentari Netflix Wild Wild Country (2018), ed è una risposta popolare a Ma Anand Sheela, la vera eroina dello show. Il film di sei episodi presenta una straordinaria quantità di filmati tratti dai quattro anni di Rajneeshpuram, un ranch di 63.000 acri a Wasco County, Oregon, che iniziò ad essere costruito nel 1981. Le cinquemila persone che vivevano a Rajneeshpuram volevano essere con loro Bhagwan (la parola hindi per Dio), Rajneesh, che è meglio conosciuto con il nome di Osho. I Rajneeshees rovesciarono le banane anziché il bacon, divennero violenti durante la terapia e lasciarono alle spalle le loro famiglie, lavori di alto profilo e, a volte, bambini. Costruirono anche dighe, alberi piantati, fattorie irrigate, energia solare, e stesero migliaia di metri quadrati di moquette. Avevano un aeroporto e una flotta di aerei personalizzati Rajneesh Air. Erano ricchi, intelligenti ed erano guidati da una donna di prodezza intensificante: Sheela, la segretaria personale e la procura di Rajneesh.
Sheela non era solo una ragazza di provincia. Al suo apice stava gestendo milioni e cresceva selvaggiamente: tentato omicidio, aggressione, intercettazioni e incendi dolosi. Se è effettivamente colpevole di queste accuse è totalmente fuori luogo. Sheela prende in giro aprire uno spettro morale. Ha un’innata capacità di incensare i presentatori televisivi bianchi che cercano di coglierla in una bugia e intrappolarla con le loro domande, che è la sua qualità più deliziosa: Solleverà la sua voce molto prima che il momento lo richieda, e parlerà di se stessa in terza persona. Non smetterà di servire iconici look soft-butch.]

Maclain and Chapman Way, Wild Wild Country, 2018, still from a TV show on Netflix. Episode 1. Ma Anand Sheela.

While brothers Maclain and Chapman Way were doing research for their all-American underdog film The Battered Bastards of Baseball (2014), an archivist at the Oregon Historic Society casually mentioned having “525 raw U-Matic tapes on the most bizarre story that ever happened in Oregon.” The brothers switched on a tape and out came lush 1980s saturation: leaky ultramarine skies and silky desert clay. Cinematically, the filmmakers just couldn’t refuse, although it helped that everything about the story was ripe for the telling. Rajneeshpuram was about twenty miles away from the small town of Antelope (population: forty), whose residents were affronted by the ways of their new neighbors. In the film, the two parties battle it out, and the Way brothers set up a straightforward plot: We have the Rajneeshis on one side, the incensed residents of Antelope on the other, and the federal government as the loping interlocutor between the two.
The footage, over three hundred hours of it, was largely shot by the Rajneeshees themselves. “We filmed everything,” Amrito, aka Dr. John Andrews, told me as I sat across him at the still-thriving Osho Meditation Resort in Pune, India. He made sure I got this right and corrected me when I said ashram, as I have always called it. I grew up not far from theresort, hanging out at its public park with my friends, mostly for a sign of anything out of the ordinary: public sex or people on psychedelics, as the rumors promised. We were desperate to know what went on in there, sharpening our attention to the dripping maroon robes that hung loosely off Oshoite bodies. When I got in touch with the resort for a comment on the series, I was surprised to be given an audience with Amrito, who is something of a talisman in the documentary. Sheela and her “Jesus Grove Gang,” as they were called, had tried to murder him twice—and both times they were successful in injuring him enough to be sent to a hospital. He was one of two people beside Osho’s deathbed, and one of two people to benefit greatly from his will.
We were seated amid several of Osho’s drawings, which are often composed entirely of his own signature. Amrito is charming in a well-rehearsed way, heavily pronounces any jokes, and is generous with his time. The filmmakers did not contact him, he says, and it is a shame that Osho’s philosophies are missing from the film. I offered that perhaps such detail is irrelevant, since the series is designed to be binge-watched, and is less interested in getting things right than in making sure we’re hooked. “But imagine making a documentary about an experiment based on Einstein’s work and not mention the theory of relativity!” he laughed. As for Sheela, “She is a super liar,” he whispers, rubbing his hands together. “I mean, absolutely. She is the cunningest lady you can imagine.” This seems to be the official statement from Osho corp: Wild Wild Country is Sheela’s requiem, her cover-up story.

[Mentre i fratelli Maclain e Chapman Way stavano facendo ricerche per il loro film all-American underdog The Battered Bastards of Baseball (2014), un archivista presso l’Oregon Historic Society ha casualmente menzionato “525 nastri U-Matic grezzi sulla storia più bizzarra che sia mai accaduta in Oregon. “I fratelli accesero un nastro e uscirono la lussureggiante saturazione degli anni ’80: cieli blu oltremare e argilla setosa del deserto. Cinematicamente, i realizzatori non potevano rifiutare, anche se ciò aiutava il fatto che tutto ciò che riguardava la storia fosse maturo per il racconto. Rajneeshpuram era a circa venti miglia di distanza dalla piccola città di Antelope (popolazione: quaranta), i cui abitanti erano offesi dalle vie dei loro nuovi vicini. Nel film, i due partiti si danno battaglia, e i fratelli Way hanno creato una trama semplice: abbiamo i Rajneeshis da una parte, gli incensati residenti di Antelope dall’altra, e il governo federale come interlocutore tra i due.
Il filmato, per oltre trecento ore, è stato ampiamente girato dai Rajneeshees stessi. “Abbiamo filmato tutto”, mi ha detto Amrito, alias Dr. John Andrews, mentre mi sedevo di fronte a lui, presso l’Osho Meditation Resort ancora in crescita a Pune, in India. Si è assicurato di aver capito bene e di correggermi quando ho detto l’ashram, come ho sempre chiamato. Sono cresciuto non lontano da lì, in giro nel suo parco pubblico con i miei amici, soprattutto per un segno di qualsiasi cosa fuori dall’ordinario: sesso pubblico o persone su sostanze psichedeliche, come promettevano le voci. Avevamo un disperato bisogno di sapere cosa succedeva lì dentro, acuendo la nostra attenzione per le goccioline color ruggine che pendevano liberamente dai corpi di Oshoite. Quando sono entrato in contatto con il resort per un commento sulla serie, sono stato sorpreso di ricevere un pubblico con Amrito, che è qualcosa di un talismano nel documentario. Sheela e la sua “Jesus Grove Gang”, come venivano chiamati, avevano tentato di ucciderlo due volte, ed entrambe le volte avevano avuto successo nel ferirlo abbastanza da essere spedito in ospedale. Era una delle due persone accanto al letto di morte di Osho, e una delle due persone per trarre grandi vantaggi dalla sua volontà.
Eravamo seduti tra molti dei disegni di Osho, che sono spesso composti interamente dalla sua firma. Amrito è affascinante in modo ben provato, pronuncia pesantemente qualsiasi battuta, ed è generoso con il suo tempo. I registi non lo hanno contattato, dice, ed è un peccato che le filosofie di Osho manchino nel film. Mi sono offerto che forse un tale dettaglio è irrilevante, dal momento che la serie è progettata per essere osservata in modo incontrollato, ed è meno interessata a fare le cose bene che ad assicurarsi che siamo agganciati. “Ma immagina di fare un documentario su un esperimento basato sul lavoro di Einstein e non menzionare la teoria della relatività!”, Ha riso. Quanto a Sheela, “È una super bugiarda”, sussurra, sfregandosi le mani. “Voglio dire, assolutamente. È la signora più astuzia che tu possa immaginare. “Questa sembra essere la dichiarazione ufficiale di Osho corp: Wild Wild Country è il requiem di Sheela, la sua cover-up story.]

Maclain and Chapman Way, Wild Wild Country, 2018, still from a TV show on Netflix. Episode 1. Amrito.

Early in the series it is clear that the real protagonist is not the “cult” in question, nor its leader, but plain-old American xenophobia. “In the United States if the government decides to get you . . . they’re gonna get you,” notes Philip Toelkes, aka Swami Prem Niren, Osho’s chief litigator, during one of his interviews in the film. In one particularly tense moment, the National Guard was dispatched to surround Rajneeshpuram and helicopters circled above, loaded with machine guns. Former assistant US Attorney Robert Weaver, who was prosecuting Osho’s arrest, describes a “very strong presence of a dark aura” on meeting with Osho, a sentiment repeated to him later by the courtroom artist, who told him she had felt this “eeriness” only once before, when she was in the presence of the Ayatollah Khomeini.
What the Other is remains slippery and amoebic. The Other is the brown import from India with the long wispy bear and sequined robes, but also the white Americans that have joined him and strayed too far from the Christian path. The Other is not afraid to disinvest from the state, self-govern, and teach one another how to use automatic weapons. Such bigotry is set deep in the fabric of the American dream, which ironically brought the Rajneeshees over in the first place. “We’d rather be dead than red,” chant the residents of Antelope: red like the commies, red like the Indians, and red like the clothes of the candy-flipping Rajneeshees.

Skye Arundhati Thomas
Wild Wild Country was released March 16, 2018 on Netflix.

[All’inizio della serie è chiaro che il vero protagonista non è il “culto” in questione, né il suo leader, ma la semplice xenofobia americana. “Negli Stati Uniti, se il governo decide di prenderti. . . ti prenderanno “, nota Philip Toelkes, alias Swami Prem Niren, capo del processo legale di Osho, durante una delle sue interviste nel film. In un momento particolarmente teso, la Guardia Nazionale fu inviata a circondare Rajneeshpuram ed elicotteri cerchiati sopra, carichi di mitragliatrici. L’ex procuratore degli Stati Uniti Robert Weaver, che stava perseguendo l’arresto di Osho, descrive una “presenza molto forte di un’aura scura” nell’incontro con Osho, un sentimento ripetuto in seguito dall’artista del tribunale, che gli disse di aver sentito questa “inquietudine” solo una volta, quando era in presenza dell’Ayatollah Khomeini.
Ciò che l’Altro è rimane sfuggente e amebico. L’ Altro [The Other] è il marrone importato dall’India con il lungo orsetto e le paillettes, ma anche gli americani bianchi che si sono uniti a lui e si sono allontanati troppo dal percorso cristiano. L’Altro non ha paura di disinvestire dallo stato, di autogovernarsi e insegnarsi l’un l’altro come usare le armi automatiche. Tale bigottismo è immerso nel tessuto del sogno americano, che ha ironicamente portato in primo piano i Rajneeshe. “Preferiremmo essere morti che rossi”, recitavano gli abitanti di Antelope: rossi come i comunisti, rossi come gli indiani, e rossi come gli abiti delle caramelle Rajneeshees.

Skye Arundhati Thomas
Wild Wild Country è stato trasmesso il 16 marzo 2018 su Netflix.]

[FONTI: ARTFORUM: Google Traduttore
Il lungo testo che viene qui riproposto serve per affrontare un dibattito che sembra ambiguo e complicato. Si rivolge a chi? A quale stereotipo americano? L’intellettuale engagé, fuori dagli schemi, o ad un pubblico più vasto che capisce le metafore della scrittrice? Usando come prova il Google Traduttore si complica ancor di più il senso di tutto il racconto. Arte nell’arte, ovvero riprendere dagli altri per poi modificare a proprio piacimento il contenuto, la materia, con l’ausilio del traduttore automatico, grimaldello dell’era digitale. Come può la scuola adattarsi alla novità tecnologica se non ha stimoli? I ragazzi usano il traduttore automatico inconsapevolmente, riprendono frasi o aneddoti che forse hanno altri significati.

The long text presented here is used to face a debate that seems ambiguous and complicated. It is aimed at who? What American stereotype? The intellectual engagé, out of the box, or a wider audience that understands the writer’s metaphors? Using as proof the Google Translator gets even more complicated the sense of the whole story. Art in the art, that is, to take back from the others and then to modify the content, the material, with the help of the automatic translator, pick of the digital age. How can the school adapt to technological innovation if it has no stimulation? The boys use the automatic translator unknowingly, they pick up sentences or anecdotes that perhaps have other meanings.]

TONIGHT, ATOMIC

July 07, 2017 •  

Twin Peaks: The Return, 2017, still from a TV show on Showtime. Season 3, episode 8.

FLAMMABLE AND INFLAMMABLE both mean “easy to burn,” though many people have tested their luck by reading inflammable as “fire-proof.” Flammable is, in one sense, how Lynch pronounces human. On the eighth and finest hour of Twin Peaks: The Return, his elegant pyrotechnics commemorate the birth of today’s America, and a near-wordless script shows that whether you describe a monstrous act as human or inhuman, you are right. But you are not trying to be right, you’re trying to be sincere, an effort so helpless as to defer meaning. Igor Stravinsky, a man so depraved he once asked the Nazis—nicely—to unban his works, felt sincerity in art to be “a sine qua non that at the same time guarantees nothing.”

That there are no more guarantees in Lynch’s late direction is obvious. Ditto that this eighteen-part limited series, a presumptive sinecure for Lynch that he took as a gamble instead, has proved auteurs are so necessary. I knew as soon as the “retired” filmmaker signed on with Showtime, having shrugged off the network’s first offer, and demanded, in addition to full control, a bigger budget, that The Return would be great. Why else would Irecap a television show, a task for which the term “armchair critic” was designed, and which is, accordingly, thankless and useless!? Prepared to be wowed, I still wasn’t ready for the unplugged rage and beauty of this episode, titled—I forgot the episodes have titles, but this one is very good—“The Last Evening.” Stravinsky would find it pleasurable. I did not. I recommend watching it twice.

The first thing that happens has happened before. On the eighth episode of the original Twin Peaks (1990–91), Special Agent Dale Cooper (Kyle MacLachlan) opens the door to his room at the Great Northern only to be greeted by Josie Packard (Joan Chen), the shenanigans-loving owner of the Packard Sawmill, with a gun and three bullets to his chest. Now, five minutes into part eight of The Return, a friend named Ray (some friend) turns around on Mr. C, Cooper’s apparent doppelganger, and shoots him thrice. He dies, which is a shame because he just got out of prison. Ray (George Griffith) feels fine about it. But lo, from the woods emerge phantasms in sackcloth and ashes, or regular clothes they haven’t washed in decades. The Woodsmen, as they’re called in the credits, swarm around the body, making a performance out of exorcism or resuscitation, until the face of BOB appears in an amniotic bubble drawn from Mr. C’s chest. Ray drives off.

Interlude: Nine Inch Nails, live at the old roadhouse, play their 2016 song “She’s Gone Away.” Trent Reznor excellently impersonates a screaming BOB. The track sounds like it features a large elephant, but no elephant is to be seen. Mysterious.

Cooper sits up in a jolt.

[FIAMMABILE E INFIAMMABILE significano entrambi “facile da bruciare”, anche se molte persone hanno testato la loro fortuna leggendo infiammabile come “a prova di fuoco”. Infiammabile è, in un certo senso, come Lynch pronuncia umano. Nell’ottava e migliore ora di Twin Peaks: The Return, i suoi eleganti fuochi d’artificio commemorano la nascita dell’America di oggi, e un copione quasi privo di parole mostra che se descrivi un atto mostruoso come umano o inumano, hai ragione. Ma tu non stai cercando di essere nel giusto, stai cercando di essere sincero, uno sforzo così indifeso da rinviare il significato. Igor Stravinskij, un uomo così depravato che una volta chiese ai nazisti – graziosamente – di disfare le sue opere, sentì la sincerità nell’arte di essere “un sine qua non che allo stesso tempo non garantisce nulla”.
Che non ci siano più garanzie nella defunta direzione di Lynch è ovvio. Idem che questa serie limitata di diciotto parti, un presunto sinecure per Lynch che ha invece preso come scommessa, ha dimostrato che gli autori sono così necessari. Sapevo che non appena il regista “in pensione” ha firmato con Showtime, dopo essersi scrollato di dosso la prima offerta della rete, e richiesto, oltre al pieno controllo, un budget più grande, che The Return sarebbe stato grandioso. Perché altrimenti farebbe Irecap un programma televisivo, un compito per il quale il termine “critico da poltrona” è stato progettato, e che è, di conseguenza, ingrato e inutile !? Preparato ad essere stupito, non ero ancora pronto per la rabbia e la bellezza di questo episodio, intitolato – ho dimenticato che gli episodi hanno titoli, ma questo è molto buono – “The Last Evening“. Stravinsky lo troverebbe piacevole. Io no. Consiglio di guardarlo due volte.
La prima cosa che succede è successo prima. Nell’ottavo episodio dell’originale Twin Peaks (1990-91), l’agente speciale Dale Cooper (Kyle MacLachlan) apre la porta della sua stanza al Great Northern solo per essere accolto da Josie Packard (Joan Chen), la proprietaria amante dello shenanigans il Packard Sawmill, con una pistola e tre proiettili sul petto. Ora, cinque minuti nella parte otto di The Return, un amico di nome Ray (un amico) si gira intorno al signor C, l’apparente doppelganger di Cooper, e gli spara tre volte. Muore, ed è un peccato perché è appena uscito di prigione. Ray (George Griffith) si sente bene a riguardo. Ma ecco, dai boschi emergono fantasmi in sacco e cenere, o abiti regolari che non hanno lavato da decenni. I Woodsmen, come vengono chiamati nei titoli di coda, sciamano intorno al corpo, eseguendo un’esibizione dall’esorcismo o dalla rianimazione, fino a quando il volto di BOB appare in una bolla amniotica disegnata dal petto del signor C. Ray si allontana.
Interlude: Nine Inch Nails, dal vivo al vecchio roadhouse, suona la loro canzone del 2016 “She’s Gone Away.” Trent Reznor impersona egregiamente un BOB urlante. La traccia sembra avere un grande elefante, ma nessun elefante deve essere visto. Misterioso.]

Nine Inch Nails performs “She’s Gone Away” on Twin Peaks: The Return

Stravinsky debuted The Rite of Spring for the Ballets Russes’s Paris season at the Théâtre des Champs-Élysées on May 29, 1913, a year and two months before Germany declared war on France. There were riots, and (mocking?) calls for a doctor. There were objections to the story, about a young woman who voluntarily dances herself to death in a needed sacrifice to the renewing world; to the frustrating score, which one critic exclaimed “always goes to the note next to the one you expect,” and the concussive or even seizure-like rhythms; and to the dancing, by Nijinsky, so inconcinnus [sic], visceral. Twenty-five years later, the Manhattan Project began with the discovery of nuclear fission, and a year after that World War II began. Then The Rite of Spring made perfect sense.
Imagine having been a child in the jaundiced dawn of the Atomic Age, anticipating the death of all you’d known, the reality at Hiroshima and Nagasaki transposed on your Manhattan, or your Missoula, Montana. Imagine seeing one photograph in particular, depicting the instant shared death of a hundred thousand people and thinking, “I have an idea.” Seeing a perfect image in . . . a mushroom cloud, and making it your own. Who is so outrageous? Sylvia Plath? Bruce Conner? I would kill someone to have that kind of brain, which is why God didn’t give it to me. He gave it to Lynch, who reappears on The Return as FBI Regional Bureau Chief Gordon Cole, now with a fancier office, and behind his wide desk, as we saw in the third hour, a wider black-and-white photograph of a nuclear blast. Five hours later, this completely inappropriate decorating choice is explained.

We go to the first detonation of an atomic bomb, in White Sands, New Mexico, on July 16, 1945, at 5:45 AM (MWT). The date and time, with its stressed specificity, is like an evangelical’s save-the-date for this year’s doomsday. The Trinity Test we are about to see did in fact take place, but a shimmer of unlikelihood, like this is unbelievable, remains. The cloud mushrooms and swallows the camera, so it feels like we’re shrinking, like Alice in . . . Hell. The colors are too much for words: imperial purple, incarnadine orange, gold. (Lynch, in his wonderfully inadequate explanation for dissecting a stranger’s recently deceased cat in his basement, said that “when I opened up the inside, it was unbelievable—the organs inside the cat were brilliant colors, and as soon as the air got to them, all the color started draining out, right before your eyes.”) The rest of the episode is in lambent black-and-white, as in Lynch’s Eraserhead (1977). There are quivering shots, almost stills, displaying staticky, patterned abstractions that look like Ross Bleckner’s paintings after AIDS.Bleckner has said that the disease, with its radioactive threat, was “a total paradigm shift in consciousness, a rupture.”

[Stravinsky ha debuttato The Rite of Spring per la stagione di Parigi dei Ballets Russes al Théâtre des Champs-Élysées il 29 maggio 1913, un anno e due mesi prima che la Germania dichiarasse guerra alla Francia. Ci sono state rivolte e (beffardo?) Chiede un dottore. C’erano obiezioni alla storia, su una giovane donna che si dona volontariamente alla morte in un sacrificio necessario al mondo che rinnova; alla colonna sonora frustrante, che un critico esclamò “va sempre alla nota accanto a quella che ti aspetti”, e ai ritmi concussivi o addirittura sequestri; e alla danza, di Nijinsky, così inconcinata [sic], viscerale. Venticinque anni dopo, il Progetto Manhattan iniziò con la scoperta della fissione nucleare, e un anno dopo iniziò la Seconda Guerra Mondiale. Quindi The Rite of Spring ha perfettamente senso.
Immagina di essere stato un bambino nell’aurora dell’età atomica, anticipando la morte di tutto ciò che avevi conosciuto, la realtà di Hiroshima e Nagasaki trasposta sulla tua Manhattan o sulla tua Missoula, nel Montana. Immagina di vedere una fotografia in particolare, raffigurante l’istantanea morte condivisa di centomila persone e pensare: “Ho un’idea”. Vedere un’immagine perfetta dentro . . una nube di funghi, e rendendola tua. Chi è così oltraggioso? Sylvia Plath? Bruce Conner? Ucciderei qualcuno per avere quel tipo di cervello, ed è per questo che Dio non me lo ha dato. Lo diede a Lynch, che riappare in The Return come capo dell’ufficio regionale dell’FBI, Gordon Cole, ora con un ufficio più elaborato, e dietro la sua ampia scrivania, come abbiamo visto nella terza ora, una più ampia fotografia in bianco e nero di un nucleare Blast. Cinque ore più tardi, viene spiegata questa scelta di decorazione del tutto inappropriata.
Andiamo alla prima detonazione di una bomba atomica, a White Sands, New Mexico, il 16 luglio 1945, alle 5:45 AM (MWT). La data e l’ora, con la sua accentuata specificità, è come la salva-data di un evangelico per il giorno del giudizio di quest’anno. Il Trinity Test che stiamo per vedere ha effettivamente avuto luogo, ma rimane un brivido di improbabilità, come questo è incredibile. La nuvola fa funghi e ingoia la macchina fotografica, quindi sembra che stiamo restringendo, come Alice dentro. . . Inferno. I colori sono troppo per le parole: viola imperiale, arancio incarnadine, oro. (Lynch, nella sua spiegazione meravigliosamente inadeguata per dissezionare il gatto di un estraneo recentemente defunto nel suo seminterrato, ha detto che “quando ho aperto l’interno, era incredibile – gli organi all’interno del gatto erano colori brillanti, e non appena l’aria arrivava a loro, tutto il colore ha iniziato a svuotarsi, proprio davanti ai tuoi occhi. “) Il resto dell’episodio è in bianco e nero, come in Lynch’s Eraserhead (1977). Ci sono scatti tremanti, quasi immagini fisse, che mostrano astrazioni statiche e modellate che assomigliano ai dipinti di Ross Bleckner dopo l’AIDS. Beckner ha detto che la malattia, con la sua minaccia radioattiva, era “un cambio di paradigma totale nella coscienza, una rottur

The vertiginous cinematography, the sensation of falling through a long telescope, and the upheaving sound track—Penderecki’s 1960 “Threnody to the Victims at Hiroshima”—could make anyone remember Stanley Kubrick, particularly his 2001: A Space Odyssey(1968). (Remember, too, the strange love is mutual: Kubrick screened Eraserhead for the cast and crew of The Shining (1980), to set the mood.) The way certain images vibrate and rattle like in a skull, lighting up the brain like a pinball machine, makes me think about the similar cracked landscapes (deserts, casinos, labyrinthian motels) of Nina Menkes, the under-known auteur who shares with Lynch a devotion to Buñuel and Maya Deren, and to Jungian views on the underworld. Menkes once told an interviewer that she takes cues from a Gertrude Stein lecture, “What Are Masterpieces and Why Are There So Few of Them?,” which she paraphrased, saying, “If you re-create something, it doesn’t have the organic precision of the spontaneous moment of creation.” (This is one reason that remakes of most films, reboots of most television shows, are unwise no matter how welcome.)

[La vertiginosa cinematografia, la sensazione di cadere attraverso un lungo cannocchiale e la colonna sonora che si sta sollevando, Penderecki del 1960 “Threnody to the Victims at Hiroshima”, potrebbe far ricordare a tutti Stanley Kubrick, in particolare 2001: A Space Odyssey (1968). (Ricorda anche che lo strano amore è reciproco: Kubrick ha proiettato Eraserhead per il cast e la troupe di The Shining (1980), per creare l’atmosfera.) Il modo in cui certe immagini vibrano e scuotono come in un teschio, illuminando il cervello come un il flipper, mi fa pensare ai paesaggi simili screpolati (deserti, casinò, motel labirinti) di Nina Menkes, l’autore meno conosciuto che condivide con Lynch una devozione per Buñuel e Maya Deren, e per le vedute junghiane sugli inferi. Menkes una volta ha detto a un intervistatore che lei prende spunti da una conferenza di Gertrude Stein, “What Are Masterpieces and Why Are There So Few of Them?”, Che lei ha parafrasato, dicendo: “Se ricrea qualcosa, non ha la precisione organica del momento spontaneo della creazione. “(Questa è una delle ragioni per cui i remake della maggior parte dei film, i riavvii della maggior parte degli spettacoli televisivi, sono sconsigliati, indipendentemente da quanto siano graditi).]

Twin Peaks: The Return, 2017, still from a TV show on Showtime. Season 3, episode 8. Laura Palmer (Sheryl Lee).

Why, seventy years after Stein, are there even fewer masterpieces per capita? Because generations of artists found it impossible to compete with a masterpiece, a “total paradigm shift in consciousness” like AIDS, or the A-Bomb. Lynch excels at creative recursion, starting with a simple, paradigmatic binary, the zero and one of dark and light, or Adam and Eve, that turns out to launch a Fibonacci spiral, and when he repeats himself it’s more like he never forgets. After the detonation, we see the Woodsmen at a convenience store and gas station, shuffling in stop-motion before drifting out like unstrung marionettes, a choreography recalling the sexless—automated but not easy—dancing we saw at the start of Mulholland Drive (2001), the chaste couples swinging off-time with their shadows. Nine years later, in the same area, a tumescent, hideous insect emerges from a small, mottled carapace that looks like the shit-talking wad of gum in the Black Lodge. A girl and a boy walk past the empty gas station; he asks whether she likes some song, she lets slip that she knows where he goes to school. What echoes is the meet-cute between Sandy Williams (Laura Dern) and Jeffrey Beaumont (Kyle MacLachlan) in Lynch’s Blue Velvet (1986), when Sandy “just knows” who he is. Reincarnation, hinted at where two people feel like they’ve known each other forever, is a funny principle, and more spontaneous in its way than creation, certainly a more unlikely and difficult principle for a creator to assume.

Meanwhile, on a two-lane road, a husband and wife stop the car so some Woodsmen can cross. One comes to the car, sticks his head in the window, and points with a cigarette. “Got a light?” he says, his voice a cello bow scraped across a rock face. “Got a light?” At a radio station the DJ is playing a song and his secretary is busy. A mechanic listens while burning the midnight oil; a waitress while cleaning up at the diner; and the girl in her flowered bedroom, dreaming about the boy she just kissed. When the twilight has gone, the song goes, and no songbirds are singing. The Woodsman enters the station, and the secretary moves toward him in an awful trance. “Got a light?” he says, but by now it is evident that nobody has a goddamn lighter.

The Woodsman begins to crush skulls, killing first the secretary, then the DJ. Lynch opened Wild at Heart (1990) with Sailor (Nicolas Cage) crushing a man’s skull in much the same way, like saying, “It’s not all in your head now, is it.” This is not the best way to communicate, but it does grant the Woodsman access to more listeners, and taking the DJ’s microphone, he prophesies:

This is the water,
and this is the well . . .
The horse is the white of the eyes,
and dark within.

Someone whose primary reaction to the surreal is to say, “Whoaaaa,” and then nothing, eliminating hassles of the mind by believing “the work speaks for itself,” will take the sequence to be mere proof that Lynch explodes brains. Someone more inclined to believe that the work speaks about itself will recognize the white horse from Sarah Palmer’s premonitions and the Red Room, a harbinger of death—like in the Book of Revelation, and more ambiguously in Godard’s King Lear (1987, another ultimate late film). I’m nervous about being spoken to, but I have some old-fashioned faith in pure symbolism: what a white horse means to a girl who cannot dream of riding one. Death is too near life to be symbolized, but a dying wish, or even a death wish, can be a symbol—if it can be nothing else.

[Perché, settant’anni dopo Stein, ci sono ancora meno capolavori pro capite? Perché generazioni di artisti hanno trovato impossibile competere con un capolavoro, un “cambio di paradigma totale nella coscienza” come l’AIDS, o la bomba atomica. Lynch eccelle nella riconversione creativa, a partire da un semplice, paradigmatico binario, lo zero e uno di oscurità e luce, o Adamo ed Eva, che si scopre per lanciare una spirale di Fibonacci, e quando si ripete è più come se non dimenticasse mai. Dopo la detonazione, vediamo i Woodsmen in un minimarket e una stazione di servizio, mescolando in stop-motion prima di andare alla deriva come marionette senza corda, una coreografia che ricorda la danza senza sesso automatizzata ma non facile che abbiamo visto all’inizio di Mulholland Drive (2001 ), le caste coppie oscillano fuori tempo con le loro ombre. Nove anni dopo, nella stessa zona, un insetto tumultuoso e orribile emerge da un piccolo carapace chiazzato che assomiglia al gomitolo di gomma da masticare nella Black Lodge. Una ragazza e un ragazzo passano davanti alla stazione di servizio vuota; lui chiede se le piace qualche canzone, lei lascia scivolare che lei sa dove va a scuola. Quello che echeggia è l’incontro tra Sandy Williams (Laura Dern) e Jeffrey Beaumont (Kyle MacLachlan) in Lynch’s Blue Velvet (1986), quando Sandy “solo sa” chi è. La reincarnazione, alludendo a due persone che si sentono come se si conoscessero da sempre, è un principio divertente e più spontaneo a suo modo della creazione, certamente un principio più improbabile e difficile da assumere per un creatore.
Nel frattempo, su una strada a due corsie, un marito e una moglie fermano la macchina così alcuni Woodsmen possono attraversare. Uno arriva alla macchina, infila la testa nella finestra e indica con una sigaretta. “Hai una luce? [mi accendi?]” Dice, la sua voce un arco di violoncello raschiato su una parete rocciosa. “Hai una luce?” In una stazione radio il DJ sta suonando una canzone e la sua segretaria è occupata. Un meccanico ascolta mentre brucia l’olio di mezzanotte; una cameriera mentre pulisce al ristorante; e la ragazza nella sua camera da letto fiorita, a sognare il ragazzo che aveva appena baciato. Quando il crepuscolo è sparito, la canzone va, e nessun uccello canterino canta. Il Woodsman entra nella stazione, e il segretario si muove verso di lui in una trance terribile. “Hai una luce? [mi accendi?]” Dice, ma ormai è evidente che nessuno ha un maledetto accendino.
The Woodsman inizia a schiacciare teschi, uccidendo prima la segretaria, poi il DJ. Lynch ha aperto Wild at Heart (1990) con Sailor (Nicolas Cage) che schiaccia il cranio di un uomo più o meno allo stesso modo, come dire “Non è tutto nella tua testa ora, vero?” Questo non è il modo migliore di comunicare, ma concede al Woodsman l’accesso a più ascoltatori e, prendendo il microfono del DJ, profetizza:

Questa è l’acqua,
e questo è il bene. . .
Il cavallo è il bianco degli occhi,
e buio dentro

Qualcuno la cui reazione primaria al surreale è di dire “Whoaaaa”, e poi nulla, eliminando i fastidi della mente credendo che “il lavoro parla da sé”, prenderà la sequenza per essere una semplice prova che Lynch esplode il cervello. Qualcuno più incline a credere che il lavoro parla di sé riconoscerà il cavallo bianco dalle premonizioni di Sarah Palmer e dalla Sala Rossa, un precursore di morte nel Libro dell’Apocalisse, e più ambiguo nel Re Lear di Godard (1987, un altro ultimo in ritardo film). Sono nervoso all’idea di parlare, ma ho una fede antiquata nel puro simbolismo: cosa significa un cavallo bianco per una ragazza che non può sognare di cavalcarne una. La morte è troppo vicina alla vita per essere simbolizzata, ma un desiderio morente, o anche un desiderio di morte, può essere un simbolo – se non può essere nient’altro.]

Twin Peaks: The Return, 2017, still from a TV show on Showtime. Season 3, episode 8.

Maybe the best thing about Lynch is his absolute refusal to leave America. When he is not on earth, he is still in America; when he is dreaming, he is still in America. Mid-episode, between 1945 and 1956 on the clock, he takes us across a livid sea to a Streamline Moderne kind of castle, where the Giant (Carel Struycken) lives with a silent woman (Leslie Berger), made up for a silent film, in sequins. A gramophone, the jacquard clamshell settee, the Tiffany lamps, all telegraph the Jazz Age, while the crepitant electricity takes me back to the night Frankenstein’s bride was born, in the mid-1930s. A spotlight follows the woman who follows the Giant across the empty floor of a theater, going right up to the screen, where the explosion, the stars, the gas station, the face of BOB on an asteroid, all we saw, replays to the Giant’s astonishment. He levitates and issues from his eyeballs a primordial gold light and dust (like we saw when the little boy dies on the street in the sixth hour), followed by a golden orb (like the one formed from the body of Dougie Jones when he trades places with Cooper in the Red Room). The orb bears Laura Palmer’s face, mirroring the asteroid as if she and BOB were obverse, but they’re also separate, equal and whole. Lynch does not have to follow Marguerite Duras to Hiroshima to get to the other side. He locates (in)humanity at the test site, where for two hundred miles around there was no human presence: a void, in other words, where a nation usurped its own God so there was no one else left to blame for evil.

“The real question this episode asks,” says the critic Sean T. Collins for Rolling Stone, “is no more or less than the one pilot Robert A. Lewis asked [somewhat apocryphally] when he dropped the atomic bomb on Hiroshima: My god, what have we done?” Lewis said that as long as he lived, he would never forget those few minutes. He never attended a reunion of the flight crew. He spent the rest of his life working in a candy factory, a common way to make a good living, but one that, reduced to a biographical footnote, reads like an overstatement on manufacturing innocence. Lynch and Frost could have written a man like Lewis, a sweet man, no doubt, who died of a plain old heart attack, a touch on the young side. How dare we go on, is the follow-up question, and how do we?

The Woodsman’s words make the waitress faint at the diner and the mechanic collapse while the engine runs. The girl only sleeps. The insect comes to her open window, and her mouth opens, so it crawls in. I guess she could have let him in devil-like by having succumbed to temptation with a boy, but really the sin is of the father, the scene incestuous, as ever with Lynch.

[Forse la cosa migliore di Lynch è il suo assoluto rifiuto di lasciare l’America. Quando non è sulla terra, è ancora in America; quando sta sognando, è ancora in America. A metà episodio, tra il 1945 e il 1956, ci porta attraverso un mare livido verso un castello di Streamline Moderne, dove il Gigante (Carel Struycken) vive con una donna silenziosa (Leslie Berger), truccata per un film muto , in paillettes. Un grammofono, il divano a conchiglia jacquard, le lampade Tiffany, tutti telegrafano all’Era Jazz, mentre l’elettricità crepitante mi riporta alla notte della sposa di Frankenstein, a metà degli anni ’30. Un riflettore segue la donna che segue il Gigante attraverso il pavimento vuoto di un teatro, andando dritto sullo schermo, dove l’esplosione, le stelle, la stazione di servizio, il volto di BOB su un asteroide, tutto ciò che abbiamo visto, si ripete allo stupore del gigante. Levita e solleva dai suoi occhi una luce e polvere primordiale d’oro (come abbiamo visto quando il bambino muore per strada nella sesta ora), seguito da un globo dorato (come quello formato dal corpo di Dougie Jones quando commercia posti con Cooper nella Red Room). L’orbita porta il volto di Laura Palmer, che rispecchia l’asteroide come se lei e BOB fossero recisi, ma sono anche separati, uguali e interi. Lynch non deve seguire Marguerite Duras fino a Hiroshima per arrivare dall’altra parte. Individua (in) l’umanità nel luogo dell’esperimento, dove per duecento miglia circa non c’era presenza umana: un vuoto, in altre parole, dove una nazione usurpava il proprio Dio e quindi non c’era nessun altro lasciato da incolpare per il male.
“La vera domanda che questo episodio pone”, dice il critico Sean T. Collins per Rolling Stone, “non è né più né meno l’unico pilota che Robert A. Lewis ha chiesto [in qualche modo apocrifo] quando ha sganciato la bomba atomica su Hiroshima: My God, cosa abbiamo fatto? ” Lewis disse che fino a quando viveva, non avrebbe mai dimenticato quei pochi minuti. Non ha mai partecipato a una riunione del personale di volo. Trascorse il resto della sua vita lavorando in una fabbrica di caramelle, un modo comune per guadagnarsi da vivere, ma che, ridotto a una nota biografica, si legge come un’esagerazione sulla manifattura dell’innocenza. Lynch e Frost avrebbero potuto scrivere un uomo come Lewis, un uomo dolce, senza dubbio, che è morto per un semplice vecchio infarto, un tocco sul lato giovane. Come osiamo andare avanti, è la domanda di follow-up, e come facciamo?
Le parole di Woodsman fanno svenire la cameriera al ristorante e il meccanico crolla mentre il motore gira. La ragazza dorme . Solo l’insetto si avvicina alla sua finestra aperta, e la sua bocca si apre, quindi striscia dentro. Credo che lei avrebbe potuto lasciarlo in un diavolo come se avesse ceduto alla tentazione con un ragazzo, ma in realtà il peccato è del padre, la scena incestuosa, come sempre con Lynch.

– Sarah Nicole Prickett]

[FONTI: ARTFORUM: Google Traduttore
Il lungo testo che viene qui riproposto serve per affrontare un dibattito che sembra ambiguo e complicato. Si rivolge a chi? A quale stereotipo americano? L’intellettuale engagé, fuori dagli schemi, o ad un pubblico più vasto che capisce le metafore della scrittrice? Usando come prova il Google Traduttore si complica ancor di più il senso di tutto il racconto. Arte nell’arte, ovvero riprendere dagli altri per poi modificare a proprio piacimento il contenuto, la materia, con l’ausilio del traduttore automatico, grimaldello dell’era digitale. Come può la scuola adattarsi alla novità tecnologica se non ha stimoli? I ragazzi usano il traduttore automatico inconsapevolmente, riprendono frasi o aneddoti che forse hanno altri significati.

The long text presented here is used to face a debate that seems ambiguous and complicated. It is aimed at who? What American stereotype? The intellectual engagé, out of the box, or a wider audience that understands the writer’s metaphors? Using as proof the Google Translator gets even more complicated the sense of the whole story. Art in the art, that is, to take back from the others and then to modify the content, the material, with the help of the automatic translator, pick of the digital age. How can the school adapt to technological innovation if it has no stimulation? The boys use the automatic translator unknowingly, they pick up sentences or anecdotes that perhaps have other meanings.]

Sarah Nicole Prickett on Twin Peaks: The Return — The Complete Recaps

Twin Peaks: The Return, 2017, still from a TV show on Showtime. Season 3, episode 8.

PARTS 1 & 2 EUCALYPTUS TREES, WEAKENED BY DROUGHT, are on their last legs all over Los Angeles. One fell and knocked out the power lines next to my friend’s house, where I am staying, in Eagle Rock, and we stood on the deck drinking Vinho Verde––delicious, like if wine were beer––watching the action. A fire truck loitered for an hour, produced no helpers, and left. Disruption made the street its own neighborhood. Homeowners came out wondering, hands synchronized on hips. One man retrieved his digital camera and tripod and took commemorative photos. Another ambled the length of his driveway twice an hour to see what was up. For a few hours, nothing. Power trucks eventually came, two then three. My friend walked down to the street, tan and hot in a crop-top, to talk to the workers, but even she couldn’t inspire them to finish faster. I thought this was fine. The only problem, really, was that without working television, or internet, we were missing the West Coast premiere of Twin Peaks: The Return.The light dimmed outside, and my friend and I read books by flashlight and candle. Flies that would normally stay by the window were drawn to the page, and I killed the first by whacking it against a coffee table with The History of Sexuality in paperback and the second by crushing it inside The New York Stories of Elizabeth Hardwick. Its viridian dead body blotted out four or five letters of text in the story “Back Issues,” so that I may never know whether the New York Public Library is at Forty-Second or Forty-Seventh and Fifth. Finishing the Vinho Verde, my friend remembered that by siphoning her cellular connection, we could stream The Return, available via Showtime on Hulu and Amazon, without electricity. This inappropriate usage of data would cost something totally nuts per minute, but “whatever,” said my friend, and I had to agree.To begin with, there was almost no sound. What there was for a score was, with one exception, diegetic, selected vagaries of the soundscape plucked and turned up to make a loose, spare derangement. Fans of the original Twin Peaks (1990–91), not to mention nonfans who also watched it, will remember that Angelo Badalamenti’s influence went way past the theme song, that adult lullaby, to disquiet the breezy scenes, make fun of sad ones, and build a fugue state throughout. Twenty-six years later, the theme remains, but nothing else plays. There are no sideways forays into jazz, no melodramatic crying jags, and few stabs at banter. The hell-bent silence makes the passage of time unbearable, like a subway ride without headphones, or a book, or a friend. Would I say that the first hour is slow? It is so slow that Stanley Kubrick watching it would start thinking about dinner.David Lynch and Mark Frost, cocreators of Twin Peaks then and now, have said that the only scene flagged by the network in the very first episode, which aired on the American Broadcasting Company, was the one where Special Agent Dale Cooper (Kyle MacLachlan), examining the body of a dead Laura Palmer (Sheryl Lee), took tweezers and dug deep under the empurpled nail of her ring finger to retrieve a miniature clue. A close-up on this procedure lasted fourteen seconds, which censors said was too long. It was perfect, yet in a technical sense the censors were correct: It was still TV. The basic differentiating formula for the best TV, or prestige TV, since the two aren’t synonymous, is film minus time. Films, when they’re great, improve on and proliferate life, which is why you don’t leave the cinema anxious about wasted hours, the way you do (I always do) after watching television no matter how good the show, and why it’s possible to watch episode after episode on Netflix or HBO Go without getting around to feeling uncomfortable or stopping to think. Some critics hold that television now is better than film, but though the average show on network television is cleverer, more inventive, more interesting than the average studio movie, suggesting that the best TV rivals the best new cinema, the medium which still represents the apotheosis of time taken and given, is rude and unacceptable unless you live in a town, like Twin Peaks, come to think of it, without a movie theater. All is to say: Lynch knows what he’s doing, and he’s doing the right thing when he calls The Return an eighteen-part film. Not a miniseries––nothing mini about it––and not episodic. To watch more than two episodes in a night would be like eating three cherry pies.Lynch used to hate his show being interrupted by commercials, saying, Imagine if you were at the symphony and every fifteen minutes the music stopped and was interchanged with jingles, and a benefit of streaming is the optional elision of ads. Another cool feature is closed captioning, which on Hulu is customizable, ergo mine is neon lime with a glowed edge to match the titles and credits, and which on The Return gives us incredible, specific descriptors of sound and score. A line dialed by the Log Lady (Catherine E. Coulson) isn’t ringing but “trilling.” Footsteps on tile in the Black Lodge are “odd reverberations.” Skin “crinkles.” In the anonymous woods are “whooshing sustains,” followed by, naturally, an “ominous tone.” But where technology gives godlike it takes away, and new problems show up in place of old ones, like the compression thinning the image-stream on a laptop so that the black ink and shadow flooding the screen turns silty instead of looking as meant: “Dark as pitch, as noir, as hate,” to quote Manohla Dargis in her review of Lynch’s last film,Inland Empire (2006).

[Twin Peaks: The Return, 2017, ancora da uno show televisivo su Showtime. Stagione 3, episodio 8.
LE PARTI 1 & 2 EUCALYPTUS TREE, INDEBITATE DA DROUGHT, sono alle loro ultime gambe in tutta Los Angeles. Uno cadde e buttò giù le linee elettriche vicino alla casa del mio amico, dove alloggiavo, a Eagle Rock, e stavamo sul ponte a bere il Vinho Verde – delizioso, come se il vino fosse birra – a guardare l’azione. Un camion dei pompieri si fermò per un’ora, non produsse nessun aiuto e se ne andò. La rottura ha reso la strada il suo quartiere. I proprietari di case sono usciti chiedendo, mani sincronizzate sui fianchi. Un uomo ha recuperato la sua fotocamera digitale e il treppiede e ha scattato foto commemorative. Un altro percorse il vialetto due volte all’ora per vedere cosa succedeva. Per poche ore, niente. Alla fine arrivarono i camion, due e tre. Il mio amico camminava in strada, abbronzato e caldo in un raccolto, per parlare con gli operai, ma anche lei non poteva ispirarli a finire più velocemente. Pensavo che andasse bene. L’unico problema, in realtà, era che senza la televisione funzionante, o internet, ci mancava la premiere della West Coast di Twin Peaks: The Return.

La luce si affievolì all’esterno, e io e il mio amico leggiamo libri con torcia e candela. Le mosche che normalmente restavano accanto alla finestra venivano attratte dalla pagina, e io uccidevo la prima colpendo il tavolo da caffè con La storia della sessualità in brossura e la seconda frantumandola dentro Le storie di New York di Elizabeth Hardwick. Il suo cadavere viridian cancellò quattro o cinque lettere di testo nella storia “Back Issues”, in modo da non sapere mai se la New York Public Library è al Quarantaduesimo o al Quarantasettesimo e al Quinto. Finendo il Vinho Verde, il mio amico si ricordò che sorseggiando la sua connessione cellulare, potevamo trasmettere The Return, disponibile tramite Showtime su Hulu e Amazon, senza elettricità. Questo uso inappropriato dei dati costerebbe qualcosa di totalmente pazzo al minuto, ma “qualunque cosa”, disse il mio amico, e io dovetti essere d’accordo.

Per cominciare, non c’era quasi nessun suono. Quello che c’era per una partitura era, con una sola eccezione, i diegetici, selezionati capricci del paesaggio sonoro pizzicati e alzati per creare uno squilibrio di riserva. I fan dei Twin Peaks originali (1990-91), per non parlare dei non fan che lo hanno anche visto, ricorderanno che l’influenza di Angelo Badalamenti è andata oltre la canzone del tema, quella ninna nanna per adulti, per inquietare le scene ventilate, prendere in giro le tristi, e costruisci uno stato di fuga dappertutto. Ventisei anni dopo, il tema rimane, ma non gioca nient’altro. Non ci sono incursioni laterali nel jazz, niente battute melodrammatiche, e poche pugnalate alle battute. Il silenzio infernale rende insopportabile il passare del tempo, come un giro in metropolitana senza cuffie, un libro o un amico. Dirò che la prima ora è lenta? È così lento che Stanley Kubrick, osservandolo, inizierebbe a pensare alla cena.

David Lynch e Mark Frost, cocreatori di Twin Peaks allora e ora, hanno affermato che l’unica scena contrassegnata dalla rete nel primo episodio, trasmesso dalla American Broadcasting Company, era quella in cui l’agente speciale Dale Cooper (Kyle MacLachlan) , esaminando il corpo di una defunta Laura Palmer (Sheryl Lee), prese delle pinzette e scavò profondamente sotto l’unghia accartocciata dell’anulare per recuperare un indizio in miniatura. Un primo piano su questa procedura è durato quattordici secondi, il che secondo i censori era troppo lungo. Era perfetto, ma in senso tecnico i censori erano corretti: era ancora la TV. La formula di differenziazione di base per la migliore TV, o TV di prestigio, poiché i due non sono sinonimi, è il film meno il tempo. I film, quando sono grandi, migliorano e proliferano la vita, motivo per cui non lasci il cinema preoccupato per ore sprecate, come fai (lo faccio sempre) dopo aver visto la televisione, non importa quanto sia bello lo spettacolo, e perché è possibile guardare episodio dopo episodio su Netflix o HBO Go senza spostarsi per sentirsi a disagio o fermarsi a pensare. Alcuni critici sostengono che la televisione ora sia migliore del film, ma sebbene lo spettacolo medio sulla rete televisiva sia più intelligente, più inventivo, più interessante del film medio in studio, suggerendo che la migliore TV rivaleggia con il miglior nuovo cinema, il mezzo che rappresenta ancora il apoteosi del tempo impiegato e dato, è scortese e inaccettabile se non vivi in ​​una città, come Twin Peaks, vieni a pensarci, senza un cinema. Tutto è da dire: Lynch sa cosa sta facendo e sta facendo la cosa giusta quando chiama The Return un film di diciotto parti. Non una miniserie – niente di niente a riguardo – e non episodica. Guardare più di due episodi in una notte sarebbe come mangiare tre torte di ciliegie.

Lynch odiava il fatto che il suo spettacolo venisse interrotto dalle pubblicità, dicendo: Immagina che tu fossi alla sinfonia e ogni quindici minuti la musica si fermasse e venisse scambiata con i jingle, e il vantaggio dello streaming è l’elisione opzionale delle pubblicità. Un’altra caratteristica interessante è la sottotitolazione, che su Hulu è personalizzabile, ergo mine è neon lime con un bordo brunito che si abbina ai titoli e ai crediti e che su The Return ci offre incredibili, specifici descrittori di suono e spartito. Una linea composta da Lady Log (Catherine E. Coulson) non sta squillando ma “trillando”. I passi sulla piastrella nella Black Lodge sono “strane riverberazioni”. La pelle “si piega”. Nel bosco anonimo ci sono “fruscii sostenuti” seguito, naturalmente, da un “tono minaccioso”. Ma dove la tecnologia dà somiglianza, toglie e nuovi problemi si presentano al posto di quelli vecchi, come la compressione che diradava il flusso di immagini su un laptop in modo che l’inchiostro nero e l’ombra si allagassero lo schermo diventa silente invece di sembrare inteso: “Oscuro come pece, come noir, come odio”, per citare Manohla Dargis nella sua recensione dell’ultimo film di Lynch, Inland Empire (2006).]

There is almost no blue. Lynch banned blue-colored props from the set of Twin Peaks in the first season, maybe also the second. This contributed to a long sense of skylessness, redoubled here in The Return. We see only a pressed and dried cornflower blue, subdued further by dank cinematography. The blue stays in the background of Laura Palmer’s iconic school portrait, now displayed in a glass case with assorted trophies. The blue is matched on the bedroom walls of our new, female victim—well, her head is female, severed and floating atop the lumpen, tumescent body of a “male John Doe” (a funny redundancy, its specificity a comment on how the typical anonymous corpse belongs to a hot girl or a woman). There are stomach-dropping aerial shots of New York City and Las Vegas, two added locations that jar the expectation, the memory of Twin Peaks as existing on a map without a territory, but these are exclusive to night. The blue is matched again in the motel room where another woman dies.

[Non c’è quasi nessun blu. Lynch ha bandito i puntelli di colore blu dal set di Twin Peaks nella prima stagione, forse anche il secondo. Ciò ha contribuito a un lungo senso di assenza di cielo, raddoppiato qui in The Return. Vediamo solo un fiordaliso pressato e secco, sottomesso ulteriormente dalla cotta cinematografica. Il blu rimane sullo sfondo dell’iconico ritratto scolastico di Laura Palmer, ora esposto in una teca di vetro con trofei assortiti. Il blu è abbinato alle pareti della camera da letto della nostra nuova vittima femminile – beh, la sua testa è femminile, mozzata e fluttuante in cima al cadavere di un “John Doe” maschio (una divertente ridondanza, la sua specificità è un commento su come tipico cadavere anonimo appartiene a una ragazza o una donna sexy). Ci sono colpi aerei di New York City e Las Vegas, due luoghi aggiunti che stonano l’aspettativa, il ricordo di Twin Peaks come esistente su una mappa senza un territorio, ma questi sono esclusivi della notte. Il blu è abbinato di nuovo nella stanza del motel dove muore un’altra donna.]

Twin Peaks: The Return, 2017, still from a TV show on Showtime. Season 3, episode 1. Darya and Mr. C (Nicole LaLiberte and Kyle MacLachlan). Photo: Suzanne Tenner/Showtime.

There are almost no not-white people. This will become more noticeable and weird as further scenes, with further and extra characters, unfold in those cities, but basically it is as it should be. Lynch specializes in a whiteness that slips from the norm, from seats of power, from centers that are traditionally but never essentially, exclusively white, to become whiteness per se. He doesn’t participate in the creeping normalization that tries to include everyone in a whiteness reconstituted as chill and that to some degree is always white-centric, and he doesn’t show us worlds where anyone, save teenagers bent on going to hell, would seek representation. Rare among major white artists, and almost impossibly, he appropriates whiteness in a manner all at once glib, unstudied, and tender, superficial and earnest, well-intentioned. This appropriative tendency is a huge and underrated part of what we mean when we say “Lynchian.” (In this Lynchianness no one excels more, more obviously, than Lana Del Rey.) Ditto his light grip on irony. Atypically for such a white American, he knows that irony is not sarcasm, is not really funny, and is never on purpose.

That Lynch is our guru and genius of white identity is one reason why I see so many fans and critics, and fans who are critics, all of them white, ask or demand that his works be held above and beyond interpretation. Yeah, I think. Nice try. The one near-definitive book on Lynch is by the critic and curator Dennis Lim, who doesn’t subject his taste to questions of either identity or identification, and who nonetheless has taken more care than most of his white peers to understand Lynch. This is an effect of Lim’s talent, and talent is always more or less selcouth, but it’s also no accident: One of the many things white people have refused to see about race is how we’re bound by our own, a refusal that makes us inadequate critics of our best representatives. Those fans and critics who, on the other hand, insist that things be explicable or that they alone have some answers are obviously wrongheaded. Less obvious is the problem: not that some viewers need everything to make sense, rather that they need things to be justified. Some things are simply not forgivable. The solution is not to mystify ignorance.

[Twin Peaks: The Return, 2017, ancora da uno show televisivo su Showtime. Stagione 3, episodio 1. Darya e Mr. C (Nicole LaLiberte e Kyle MacLachlan). Foto: Suzanne Tenner / Showtime.

Non ci sono quasi più bianchi. Questo diventerà più evidente e strano come le scene successive, con ulteriori e ulteriori personaggi, si svolgono in quelle città, ma fondamentalmente è come dovrebbe essere. Lynch è specializzato in un candore che scivola dalla norma, dalle sedi del potere, dai centri tradizionalmente ma mai essenzialmente, esclusivamente bianchi, per diventare bianchezza di per sé. Non partecipa alla normalizzazione strisciante che cerca di includere tutti in un candore ricostituito come freddo e che in qualche misura è sempre bianco-centrico, e non ci mostra mondi dove nessuno, tranne i ragazzi che si piegano per andare all’inferno, cercherebbe la rappresentazione Raro tra i maggiori artisti bianchi, e quasi impossibilmente, si appropria di un candore in un modo tutto sommato, non studiato, tenero, superficiale e serio, ben intenzionato. Questa tendenza appropriativa è una parte enorme e sottovalutata di ciò che intendiamo quando diciamo “Lynchian”. (In questa Lynchianness nessuno eccelle di più, più ovviamente, di Lana Del Rey.) Idem la sua leggera presa sull’ironia. Atipicamente per un americano così bianco, sa che l’ironia non è sarcasmo, non è davvero divertente e non è mai apposta.

Che Lynch sia il nostro guru e genio dell’identità bianca è una delle ragioni per cui vedo così tanti fan e critici, e fan che sono critici, tutti bianchi, che chiedono o chiedono che le sue opere si tengano al di sopra e al di là dell’interpretazione. Sì, penso. Bel tentativo. L’unico libro quasi definitivo su Lynch è del critico e curatore Dennis Lim, che non assegna il suo gusto a domande di identità o di identificazione, e che tuttavia ha avuto più cura di capire la maggior parte dei suoi colleghi bianchi per capire Lynch. Questo è un effetto del talento di Lim, e il talento è sempre più o meno selcouth, ma non è un caso: una delle tante cose che i bianchi hanno rifiutato di vedere sulla razza è come siamo legati dai nostri, un rifiuto che rende noi critici inadeguati dei nostri migliori rappresentanti. Quei fan e critici che, d’altra parte, insistono sul fatto che le cose siano spiegabili o che solo loro hanno delle risposte sono ovviamente sbagliate. Meno ovvio è il problema: non che alcuni spettatori abbiano bisogno di tutto per avere un senso, piuttosto che hanno bisogno che le cose siano giustificate. Alcune cose non sono semplicemente perdonabili. La soluzione non è di mistificare l’ignoranza.]

Besides, what we have here is an auteur who plays not with but to critics. Lynch teases, he tickles, he withholds relief and escape. He also holds out comfort in symbols and puns. He’s a lot like the other David (Cronenberg) in his twisted devotion to genre, his habit of making actors talk like they’re saying lines from other, lesser movies, and his hokey, dated special effects, stopping shy of “movie magic” and leaving spells broken, lying around. A serious dreamer, he welcomes without begging analysis, and takes analysts, even critics, seriously. The evidence of his generosity is that he doesn’t give his own interpretations. There are so many artists who think they can do my job. I let them. I like writing about art that leaves space. Take Lynch at his purest here, his lens hovering on Darya (Nicole LaLiberte), the newest of his uncanny valley dolls, in some anywhere motel during the last minute or two of her life as she goes from being hit in the face to getting shot in the head. Her heavy false eyelashes come unglued, lifting visibly from her natural lash line, in an exposure so slighting, cruel, and brief that you feel special, then guilty, for noticing it, though probably your noticing it is the point. Trompe l’œil, painted with a shaky, minatory hand, is the effect. Take Lynch at his most obvious in the scenes where a pretty young man is being paid to sit in a TriBeCa loft and watch an empty glass box, told only to wait for something, some image to materialize there. His crush comes over with lattes from the coffee shop where, in the guise of a junior ad executive, she works nights as a barista, and he tells her the loft belongs to “some anonymous billionaire.” “Oooh,” she goes. “Mysterious.” (Unnecessary emphasis hers.)

[Inoltre, quello che abbiamo qui è un autore che gioca non con ma con i critici. Lynch stuzzica, solletica, trattiene il sollievo e fugge. Tiene anche conforto in simboli e giochi di parole. È molto simile all’altro David (Cronenberg) nella sua devota devozione al genere, la sua abitudine di far parlare gli attori come se dicessero linee da altri film minori, e il suo hokey, datato effetti speciali, fermandosi timidi di “magia del film” e lasciando incantesimi spezzati, in giro. Sognatore serio, accoglie senza un’accurata analisi e prende sul serio gli analisti, anche i critici. L’evidenza della sua generosità è che non dà le sue interpretazioni. Ci sono così tanti artisti che pensano di poter fare il mio lavoro. Li lascio. Mi piace scrivere di arte che lascia spazio. Prendi Lynch nel modo più puro qui, il suo obiettivo si libra su Darya (Nicole La Liberte), la più nuova delle sue bambole veggenti, in qualche motel in qualsiasi parte dell’ultimo minuto o due della sua vita mentre passa dall’essere colpito in faccia a farsi sparare nella testa. Le sue pesanti ciglia finte vengono scollate, sollevandosi visibilmente dalla sua naturale linea delle ciglia, in un’esposizione così leggera, crudele, e breve che ti senti speciale, poi colpevole, per averlo notato, anche se probabilmente lo stai notando è il punto. Trompe l’œil, dipinto con una mano tremante e minatoria, è l’effetto. Prendi Lynch nel modo più ovvio nelle scene in cui un giovane grazioso viene pagato per sedersi in un loft di TriBeCa e guardare una scatola di vetro vuota, che dice solo di aspettare qualcosa, un’immagine che si materializzi lì. La sua cotta arriva con i latticini della caffetteria dove, nei panni di un dirigente junior, lavora notti da barista, e le dice che il loft appartiene a “un miliardario anonimo”. “Oooh,” she goes. “Mysterious.” (Unnecessary emphasis hers.)]


Twin Peaks, 1990–91. Season 2, episode 22.

One image appearing briefly in the glass box––a harbinger greeted, as it happens and has to happen, by no one––belongs to the man last seen as Cooper, trapped soul and body in the Black Lodge (long story) for the past twenty-five years. Cooper hasn’t been seen this side of limbo since, possessed by his prime suspect’s demon, he bashed his head into a mirror and asked how Annie was, though he did find time to change into a tux before leaving the dimension. Wandering earth is his doppelgänger, a heartless, successful criminal wearing Lenny Kravitz’s pants, a Samson-haired and literally strong-armed man (what is his arm made of, steel?), a killer who goes only by “C.” Lynch at his most moral: There are no antiheroes, only heroes who stand to be ruined rather than fall. There are no complications, no excuses, and as he prefers not to diagnose from the director’s chair, there are no pleas of insanity. (A doctor on the original Twin Peaks, opining that Leland Palmer has been driven to kill by madness, triggered by grief, is stopped right there by Special Agent Cooper: “Do you approve of murder, Doctor Hayward?”) This binary starring role for MacLachlan, taken into consideration with his quite prominent billing, over the alphabetical rest of the cast in the end credits, may or may not indicate that the fifty-eight-year-old actor is angling for what we might have to call a “MacLachlanaissance” (cf. Matthew McConaughey’s “McConnaissance,” which peaked with his bravura performance as the philosophical, reluctantly loved, eventually schizo Rusty on season one of HBO’s True Detective). The last we see of Monsieur C, he’s driving what appears to be a 1989 Lincoln Continental (cf. Matthew McConaughey’s Lincoln ads), hearse-black inside and outside, back to where he belongs.

The first we see of Twin Peaks in The Return is a lonesome clearing in the woods, and a red truck backing into a gravel driveway as smoothly as if it were shot in forward motion and reversed in post. Doctor Jacoby (Russ Tamblyn) emerges at the door of a derelict trailer home and takes off a pair of shades to reveal another pair, one red lens, one blue, a joke about what—shadiness, layers, the third dimension? A joke about being Lynchian. The driver lifts boxes from the truck, and from the boxes brings objects seen only as shapes, wrapped in plastic. He asks the doc how he’s doing. “Good as ever,” says the doc. Not a joke, a fact about being here.

Five minutes before the end of the second hour, my friend’s laptop died, and mine, too, proved dead. The last thing we saw was Shelly Johnson (Mädchen Amick) looking at James Hurley (James Marshall) as the Chromatics, live at the Bang Bang Bar, play a song about darkness. “James is still cool,” Shelly says. “James has always been cool.” I could honestly have cried. Outside the house, the men in orange hats worked overtime under temporary lights.

[Un’immagine che appare brevemente nella scatola di vetro – un presagio accolto, come capita e deve accadere, da nessuno – appartiene all’uomo visto per l’ultima volta come Cooper, intrappolato anima e corpo nella Loggia Nera (lunga storia) per il ultimi venticinque anni. Cooper non è stato visto da questo lato del limbo poiché, posseduto dal demone del suo primo sospettato, ha spinto la sua testa in uno specchio e ha chiesto come stava Annie, anche se ha trovato il tempo di cambiarsi in uno smoking prima di lasciare la dimensione. Wandering earth è il suo doppelgänger, un criminale senza cuore e di successo che indossa i pantaloni di Lenny Kravitz, un uomo dai capelli di Sansone e letteralmente con le braccia forti (di che cosa è fatto il braccio, acciaio?), Un assassino che va solo da “C.” Lynch a il suo più morale: non ci sono antieroi, solo eroi che stanno per essere rovinati piuttosto che cadere. Non ci sono complicazioni, non ci sono scuse e, come lui preferisce non diagnosticare dalla sedia del regista, non ci sono motivi di follia. (Un dottore sull’originale Twin Peaks, che sostiene che Leland Palmer è stato spinto a uccidere per la follia, innescato dal dolore, viene fermato proprio dall’agente speciale Cooper: “Approvi l’omicidio, il dottor Hayward?”) Questo ruolo da protagonista binario per MacLachlan, preso in considerazione con la sua fatturazione piuttosto prominente, oltre il resto alfabetico del cast nei titoli di coda, può o non può indicare che l’attore cinquantottenne sta pescando per quello che potremmo dover chiamare un ” MacLachlanaissance “(” McConnaissance “di Matthew McConaughey, che ha raggiunto il culmine con la sua bravura come filosofo, a malincuore, alla fine schizo Rusty nella prima stagione della True Detective della HBO). L’ultima volta che vediamo di Monsieur C, sta guidando quella che sembra una Lincoln Continental del 1989 (le pubblicità di Lincoln di Matthew McConaughey), il carro funebre nero dentro e fuori, di nuovo al suo posto.

Il primo che vediamo di Twin Peaks in The Return è una radura solitaria nei boschi, e un camion rosso che si arrampica su un vialetto di ghiaia con la stessa facilità con cui è stato girato in avanti e rovesciato in posizione. Il dottor Jacoby (Russ Tamblyn) emerge sulla porta di una rimessa abbandonata e toglie un paio di sfumature per rivelare un altro paio, una lente rossa, una blu, una barzelletta su cosa – sfumature, strati, la terza dimensione? Una battuta sull’essere Lynchian. Il conducente alza le scatole dal camion e dalle scatole porta oggetti visti solo come forme, avvolti nella plastica. Chiede al dottore come sta. “Buono come sempre”, dice il doc. Non è uno scherzo, un fatto di essere qui.

Cinque minuti prima della fine della seconda ora, il portatile del mio amico morì e anche il mio si rivelò morto. L’ultima cosa che abbiamo visto è stata Shelly Johnson (Mädchen Amick) che guardava James Hurley (James Marshall) mentre i Chromatics, dal vivo al Bang Bang Bar, suonavano una canzone sull’oscurità. “James è ancora figo”, dice Shelly. “James è sempre stato figo.” Potrei onestamente aver pianto. Fuori dalla casa, gli uomini con i cappelli arancioni facevano gli straordinari sotto le luci temporanee.]

PARTS 3 & 4

Twin Peaks: The Return, 2017, still from a TV show on Showtime. Season 3, episode 4.

LAWS IN THE WORLD OF DAVID LYNCH are unnatural but do not lead to order, and things disordered lapse into “thingness.” This should be one of Lynch’s favorite words, lent to him in that book by Dennis Lim: “In his own speech—and in the speech patterns of his films, with their gnomic pronouncements and recurring mantras—the impression is of language used less for meaning than for sound. To savor the thingness of words is to move away from their imprisoning nature.” Write down the “academic definition” of “Lynchian,” suggested and sent-up by David Foster Wallace in his notes from the set of Lost Highway, and then I’ll never say “Lynchian” again: “[It] refers to a particular kind of irony where the very macabre and the very mundane combine in such a way as to reveal the former’s perpetual containment within the latter.” Now say the word macabre over and over, silently or aloud to yourself, until the word has lost all definition to become a void, a nothing, a prenatal lump of sound. Now try it with human.

The man who taught us binomial nomenclature, as in Homo + sapiens, divided humanity into four squares, or “races,” extrapolated in a fucked-up way from the “four humors” of more ancient thought. He was a Swedish doctor and botanist who lived in the seventeenth century under the name Linnaeus, and he decided that Americans were Americanus (red, choleric, upright), Europeans were Europeaus (white, sanguine, muscular), Asians wereAsiaticus (pale yellow, melancholic, stiff), and Africans were Afer (black, phlegmatic, relaxed). Four, the number of limbs, seasons, and elements, has remained the magic number of inter-human difference, as with the four major archetypes discovered by Carl Jung, and the four dichotomies, combining to make possible sixteen types, in the Myers-Briggs personality test. (Lynch would be, I think, a medium-rare type of person: Introverted, Intuitive, Feeling, and Perceiving, known for “revealing [his] beauty and [his] secrets through metaphors and fictional characters,” according to the third website that appeared to me when I googled “INFP.”) But Linné, as he was called after his ennoblement, in a codicil that basically deconstructed his legacy, added two absurd bonus types: ferus for the feral or “wild boys,” and monstorus for the deformed and the freaks found in folk tales. When I learned this, I felt the way Foucault says he felt when he read a Borges fable, a spoof on taxonomy, written as if excerpted from “a certain Chinese encyclopaedia” wherein animals are those “belonging to the Emperor,” or those who are “fabulous,” those who are “stray dogs,” those who “have just broken the water pitcher,” and so on. “In the wonderment of this [fictional] taxonomy,” writes Foucault, so beginning The Order of Things (1966), “the thing we apprehend in one great leap, the thing that, by means of the fable, is demonstrated as the exotic charm of another system of thought, is the limitation of our own.” We don’t have to read Foucault, or even Borges, though, to feel our limits, since they begin with our dreams.

Among the menagerie of pet theories I’ve kept from my childhood, a sentimental favorite is that dreams are just pieces of the day, unprocessed or left on the cutting-room floor, swept up and viewed in a kaleidoscope. Maybe the order is deranged, fragmentary, and synesthetic, but there can be nothing in my dream that wasn’t already in my head. As for dreams being illogical or strange, it’s simply a matter of being free from the unreasonable expectation that life, and the things in it, will make sense. The other day I bought in-ear headphones decorated with little skulls, and found that both headphones were marked R, requiring me to have two right ears. “Weird,” I thought. But in a dream, I would have thought nothing. This is why we say that works by Lynch are dreamlike, because sometimes we don’t know what to think. What, for instance, do we think about the one pale horse who appeared to Sarah Palmer in Twin Peaks before Madeleine died, and who appears again as a figure in The Return, once in the Black Lodge and once in Las Vegas as the namesake of the Silver Mustang Casino? Coincidence, dream-symbol, or mere déjà vu?

Twin Peaks: The Return, 2017, still from a TV show on Showtime. Season 3, episode 4. Regional Bureau Chief Gordon Cole and Agent Albert Rosenfeld (David Lynch and Miguel Ferrer).

Pale people, we can say with more certainty, are not woke but dreaming. In the funniest bit of Twin Peaks (1990), a lady named Gwen, sister of Lucy, surmises to Deputy Tommy “Hawk” Hill (Michael Horse, who, like his character, is American Indian) that given what they’ve done to his tribe, he must really hate whites. Hawk neither startles nor hesitates. “Some of my best friends are white people,” he says. A decade or two later, this would be an obvious joke. At the time it was perfect, part sincere. Lynch takes the stereotyped stoic American Indian and imbues his silences not with some mystic wisdom but with a down-to-earth amusement that befits a man burdened by history and tasked with protecting innocence in adults. That views on whiteness from elsewhere are entirely determined by the actions, behaviors, and thoughts of white people themselves is a ludicrous, too-common assumption. (It says more about the people who assume it, about their taste for vengeances, their grudges, similar to how what a critic says about a show can say more about the critic than the show, an old truism I haven’t found a reason to contradict.) This isn’t to say that Lynch’s views on nonwhite characters are unproblematic, rather that they are problematic in two senses, both the more current definition (offensive, troubling) and the more original one (merely troublesome), the additive effect being that his non-sense, unlike so much “white nonsense,” is worth thinking about.

Hawk is now deputy chief in the Twin Peaks sheriff’s department, and on the third and fourth hours of The Return, playing on Showtime, he grapples with a directive from the Log Lady (Catherine E. Coulson, may she rest in pines). “There is something missing,” says the Log, by way of the Lady. “Something,” that is, “to do with [his] heritage.” Puzzled and willing to play the game, Hawk unburies the box of case files and calls in Andy (Harry Goaz) and Lucy Brennan (née Moran, played with breathtaking continuity by Kimmy Robertson), who are deputy and secretary, respectively. Lynch and Frost’s scripts are like two-player games of word association, and the word here is clueless. “Your heritage,” says Lucy, slow and tremulous. “You’re . . . Indian?” Her particularly white way of being afraid that just saying a name is calling a name is, in this case, ironically justified. Hawk looks at her slowly. We see what he’s not saying. He says, “Yes.” It’s easy to make Anglo-Saxons, in the presence of a token or tokenized character, seem like the tolerant ones. Here the tolerance is all on Hawk’s side, and though the figure of him remains tokenized, a requisite nod to the precolonial history of town and country, the actor’s intelligence gives him an out-of-body aspect, and he glides above tokenization. When I said last week that almost no humans would seek representation in Lynch’s world, it was an exaggeration, and besides, the opposite is true about actors: Who wouldn’t want to be set loose on screen by this guy?

Twin Peaks: The Return, 2017, still from a TV show on Showtime. Season 3, episode 4. Dougie Jones (Kyle MacLachlan).

The fourth hour of The Return, destined to be an all-time fan favorite, brings us the only child of Andy and Lucy. As Lucy tells it, Cooper wanted the son to be named Marlon Brando, after the legend whose love affair with the American Indian is never forgotten, and at birth the couple compromised and named him Wally, Wally Brando. Boy, does he (Michael Cera) live up to that choice. Showing up unannounced on a motorcycle, clad in a punk-ass black leather jacket, a white-and-navy ringer tee, and an oversize army beret, Wally has transcended the decades to embody at least a quarter-century of boy-teen rebellion. He has roamed the country, he has a strong sense of dharma, and his idiolect is a very fine whine. “From Alexandria, Virginia, to Stockton, California,” he nasally muses, “I think about Lewis, and about his friend Clark, the first Caucasians to see this part of the world.” He enunciates each morpheme in “Caucasian,” such that it rhymes with Abkhazian. Kaw-kay-zee-uhn. Try it. Try not to laugh. Also, Wally informs his parents, in the deposed-royal manner of a fifth-generation middle-class American, that he will permit them to turn his childhood bedroom, which he has not seen in years, into a study. The Brennans respond like listeners of a classic pop radio show who have just been informed they’ve won the keys to a timeshare in South Florida and two vouchers for dinner at P.F. Chang’s.

Wally is right about Lewis and Clark, who were among the first white people to belong in the Kaw-kay-zee-uhn era. Less than a decade before the two stepped all over America, one Johann Friedrich Blumenbach, a doctor and anthropologist in Göttingen, Deutschland, elaborated on the work of Carl Linné and reclassified as “varieties” the humans he saw. Unlike his more racist peers and successors, says Nell Irvin Painter in her empathetic, well-limned treatise The History of White People (2010), Blumenbach did not assort humans by race or assign to the races differing, unequal abilities, intelligences, and virtues, unless you count beauty a virtue: He chose, for the “variety” to which he himself would belong, the name “Caucasian,” because he felt that the people of Caucasus, a loose braid of mountains around Georgia, had the most elegant bones in their heads. Painter notes that the “unblemished young woman’s skull” from which he drew this conclusion had resonances with the old white-slave trade, one in which “the figure of the slave is invariably female, always young, emphatically white—sometimes even blonde—and invariably beautiful”––a real Laura Palmer, in other words, one who “usually comes from Georgia or the Caucasus.” An upside to his superficiality was that, having organized peoples by color, he began to see their differences not in squares but on a gradient, the way we’d later see sexuality, or sanity. Nevertheless, it was pure white entitlement. It wasn’t that Blumenbach was given the first choice of skulls, nor that he stole the skulls, exactly, only that he happened to pick out the prettiest skulls; he also liked that all skulls were themselves “white in color, which we may fairly assume to have been the primitive color of mankind.”

There is something morbid and wonderful, as well as dastardly, about Blumenbach’s choice. When I said that Lynch appropriates whiteness, rendering it less flesh than guise, a naive costume, I was remembering that more than once he gave white actors “whiteface” with old-fashioned pancake makeup, most memorably in Lost Highway (1997). I was thinking that the whiteness of Twin Peaks was something like a skull mask worn over the face, a skeleton worn over the body on Halloween. Had I spent much time as a teen getting oppressed on the basis of being white and bony, I would perhaps be offended. Today white knuckleheads are always logging on to different websites to fret about oppression that has yet to exist, especially “white genocide,” by which is meant the declining birthrate among descendants of European whites, and which sounds more like white suicide, to which we have been led by our freedoms, like the sexual ones. As a woman of childbearing age and ability, I have been accused by my own youngest brother of being too ambitious, self-absorbed, and vain to further my race by becoming pregnant with another white fetus. Unfortunately, it’s beyond me to care whether so-called Caucasians have plenteous futures. For my people to die in vainness and sterility, aided by pills, would be appropriate, desirable, and not bad. I welcome our fate.

Twin Peaks: The Return, 2017, still from a TV show on Showtime. Season 3, episode 4. Dougie Jones and Jade (Kyle MacLachlan and Nafessa Williams).

But before fate, nostalgia. Lynch, a shapeshifter who appears as a perfect square of a man, loves to pack and unpack the boxy, obsessive, even maniacal systems of classification (for identity, and thus for derangement) and storage (for pride, and for loss) that line the halls of the past, and to dwell on the backwardness that often now accompanies the nostalgic. Special Agent Dale Cooper (Kyle MacLachlan), after a long and stressful journey through consciousness, lands on earth in his body; his mind, and his shoes, are left on the plane. Worse, there are more than two Coopers, for lack of a better term. One, the real bad one, Mr. C, has failed to show up for his scheduled return to the Black Lodge, and is alive in a prison cell. Sent in his place is another one, a licentious and chintzy-looking real-estate agent named Dougie Jones, whose mortal coil is compressed into a tiny golden nugget, leaving only a significant jade ring. Yet the person of Dougie remains, husband to a stressed-out, underweight woman named Janey-E (Naomi Watts) and father to the eight-year-old Sonny Jim Jones (Pierce Gagnon).

We meet Mr. Jones on an exurban tract-housing project in a development named Rancho Rosa, the two Rs recalling the Double R Diner of yore, in a beige-carpeted bedroom where light falls through the slats like on the set of a black-and-white noir; the shot, however, looks like a recent photograph by Torbjørn Rødland. He’s in the arms of an extremely pretty prostitute named Jade (Nafessa Williams), posed like the Venus Anadyomene, her black skin all bared. What she brings is such stomach-dropping eroticism that I have no clue whether I’m meant to be shocked. I can only suggest that, in the moment, MacLachlan has never looked more like the kind of Caucasian who needs a pocket calculator to tally his Scottish, Welsh, Irish, and Cornish heritage. Jade, another tolerant professional of color, emerges from her postwork shower to find that Dougie, prostrate on the carpet, has been replaced by Coop. She’s at a loss to ascertain where her client got “that suit . . . and that haircut,” but assumes by his abandonment of most functions that he’s had a stroke and drops him off at the Silver Mustang Casino, saying, “Call for help.”

Long scenes transpire in which Cooper may as well be an alien. Like the brother from another planet in the 1984 John Sayles film by that name, he has an unexplained power over things that plug into the wall, and simply by pointing at the slot machines, he wins twenty-nine jackpots. Like the invading body snatchers in both the 1956 Don Siegel film and the1978 Philip Kaufman remake, he seems fated, despite this life-changing fortune, to end up a pod person. It is to the bright, clean, well-appointed life of the Joneses that he returns. We can’t keep up, but neither can he. Unable to speak except to repeat what’s literally just been said to him, he lights up for the first time at the breakfast table in the spacious eat-in kitchen. “Here’s your coffee,” says Janey-E, handing him a mug that says, in block letters, THIS IS DOUGIE’S COFFEE. “Coffee!” he gasps. Watching this the first time I sighed with relief, thinking it was all a bad joke about not being yourself before that first cup of coffee in the morning. Alas—he takes one sip and, like a goddamn baby, spits it out.


Excerpt from Twin Peaks, 1991

By now I can see that it might be annoying to watch anyone, even Kyle MacLachlan, perform some enormous difficulty in being a straight, cissexual, employed, married, (relatively) able-bodied, blah blah blah white male. The more you dwell on it, the more perverse is the truth that white men discovered alienation. Better to think about white men’s greatest invention, other than Venetian blinds, lipstick in a tube, and the guillotine, and that is: romance. The beautiful scam! I’m obsessed. There is no more individuating force than romantic love, as I have said a thousand times or, at the very least, once. This is why we see on daytime soap operas decades-long plots revolving around the supposition that two identical white women, played by literally the same actress, are opposites on the inside. Lynch, in his soap-loving bones, is as romantic and Romantic as Blumenbach was. He’s a Double R romantic, we could say.

Case, point: Remember Denise, the top federal agent and trans woman with every reason to be proud, played with sly aplomb by David Duchovny? There was scant discourse on gender to greet her appearance in 1990, and there is discourse galore awaiting her reappearance now, yet the show needs no change. Anyone who self-actualizes and looks better doing it is fine and has always been fine by Lynch. “When you became Denise,” says Regional Bureau Chief Gordon Cole, who is Lynch himself, “I told all of your colleagues, those clown comics, to fix their hearts or die.” Unhelped by his hearing aid, Cole shouts this as he does most things, but here in a meter that edges on iambic, doubling the line’s sudden wham. Lynch in director mode can be less than present, relinquishing control to the aleatory and straying so far off the beat that the beat is a memory, so that when he does match a line to the pulse, it’s shockingly great.

Later, Cole and Agent Albert Rosenfeld (Miguel Ferrer), fresh from a visit to the imprisoned Mr. C., who is pretending to be an undercover Cooper, are standing outside. “Blue rose,” says Rosenfeld. “Blue rose,” as we know, is Cole’s code term for especially tricky and transmundane cases. The term first appeared in the literal, as a poly-silk corsage on a woman’s red dress in Fire Walk with Me, and no one could say what it meant, like how the proto-Romantic German poet Novalis, in Penelope Fitzgerald’s 2014 novelization of his life,The Blue Flower, knows only that it’s all he needs to know. “It doesn’t get any bluer,” says Cole. It really doesn’t. The anomalous, gelid blue that douses the frame doesn’t come from the sky behind the men, rather from the tinted window of the Lincoln Town Car, a tint known as Gasser, after a breed of 1970s muscle car, but to me recalling Gass, William Gass, and his On Being Blue (1975). Hell, he says in the book, has gas-blue flames, and on earth everything empty is blue, but so are human interiors. These connections weren’t planned for me, but sparked. Lynch does it again: a blue tuned to a frequency that cracks the protective glass between what you’re seeing and you.

PART 5

Twin Peaks: The Return, 2017, still from a TV show on Showtime. Season 3, episode 5. Becky (Amanda Seyfried).

“BLUE IS THE WRONG COLOR FOR ROSES,” says the crippled, disconsolate Laura in The Glass Menagerie (1944), my favorite Tennessee Williams play. “It’s right for you!” says Jim, her old high-school crush. They are about twenty-three years old and have been reunited in the one-sided hope that he’ll pick her out, pick her up, and carry her off. Once, all those years ago, she told him she was sick with pleurosis, which he misheard as “blue roses.” The mondegreen stuck. “The different people are not like other people, but being different is nothing to be ashamed of,” he says to her. “Because other people are not such wonderful people . . . They’re common as—weeds, but—you—well, you’re—Blue Roses!”

Though Laura is “pretty . . . in a different way,” she is apparently still more different than pretty. Jim wishes she were his sister, not his girl. He is engaged now to a chick named Betty, he says, dropping the bombshell like it’s a jacket on a chair. With about the same care, he lets fall a glass unicorn in the menagerie––its horn breaks, leaving it a mere pale horse. “I’ll just imagine it had an operation,” Laura makes herself say. “The horn was removed to make him less—freakish!” Meanwhile, Laura’s kid brother, who has facilitated this unblissful reunion, is at the movies, which makes sense for a boy who, in the words of Laura’s sister, doesn’t know anything. “You live in a dream,” she says, when he gets back. “You manufacture illusions!” When Jim leaves, she says, faintly: “Things have a way of turning out so badly.”

There is an old word for women who believe they can overturn fate, and the word (adjective) is “weird.” (Remember, in Macbeth, the “weird sisters.”) This was also the word (noun) for fate or destiny itself, and is now the word (verb) for alienating others: “weirding out.” What makes the new David Lynch so weird, and at the same time traditional, sometimes ancient, is its ever more delayed, more inevitable reckoning with fate. Things in Twin Peaks have a way of turning out badly, and for women those ways are more predictable. “Blue Rose,” the designation lent by FBI Regional Bureau Chief Gordon Cole (David Lynch) to the few, weird cases we see him handle, seems to imply that the cases are unsolvable, or that the solutions lie in the paranormal. But in the case of Laura Palmer, what was left unresolved was something very physical, very sick, between her and her father. If biology is not destiny, and neither is identity, we can split the difference: it’s family that destines and thwarts us, family that buries the evidence for what we can and can’t do, and family that decides, still and so often, where we end.

At the end of the second, third, and fourth hours in Twin Peaks: The Return, we were left at the Bang Bang Bar, the long-standing roadhouse in Twin Peaks, listening to a new band each time: the Chromatics, the Cactus Blossoms, Au Revoir Simone. They played songs about darkness and seeing angels, about going down to shorelines, living evening to night. Before the end of hour five, we go again to the bar, where now the band Trouble is playing, and a guy with the face of a wolf raised by housecats is smoking under a No Smoking sign. This guy, we see in the credits, is Richard Horne (Eamon Farren). It would seem that Audrey Horne (Sherilyn Fenn), the baddest girl with the second-worst dad on the originalTwin Peaks, has a son who’s just evil. (Having yet to see Fenn, we can’t be sure; he could belong to another Horne.) A girl who asks Richard for a cigarette gets choked out, name-called, and threatened with rape, or something like rape, instead. Trouble plays a song about wearing a new pair of cowboy boots to dance on the future grave of Kenneth Anger, next to the one for Johnny Ramone, in the Hollywood Forever Cemetery (the song has no words).

Twin Peaks: The Return, 2017, still from a TV show on Showtime. Season 3, episode 5. Richard Horne (Eamon Farren).

Over at the Double R Diner, where Shelly Johnson (Mädchen Amick) and Norma Jennings (Peggy Lipton) are still working, or where, I suppose, the women could have returned after second divorces, the daily lunch special is $8.95 and Shelly’s daughter needs $72 in cash. Becky (Amanda Seyfried) is wed to the weirdly hot asshole and coke dealer Steven Burnett (Caleb Landry Jones), just as her mother, in Twin Peaks, was wed to the weirdly hot asshole and coke dealer, also the woman-beater, Leo Johnson: “I’ve got one man too many in life,” said Shelly at the time, “and I’m married to him.” When her husband wound up in a coma, her real love, Bobby Briggs (Dana Ashbrook), believed she could cash in on the disability checks and change her life. Apparently not. “If you don’t help [Becky] now,” says Norma to Shelly, “it’ll be a lot harder to help her later.” Shelly says, “We both know that tune.”

Where sudden, unearned riches are an ultimate fairy-tale ending, the notion of being happy without money is no less fantastical. Even a little extra serves the purpose. Steven has thoughtfully saved a thimble of cocaine for his wife, a wee aperitif before he takes her to an unaffordable dinner, and she snorts it off his hand before putting on the song “I Love How You Love Me,” from 1961. We know this tune too, whether or not we’ve heard it before. Head tossed back to the sky, eyes so wide she’s like Joan Crawford playing innocent, Becky looks ecstatic, or should I quote the poet Harmony Holiday, in her new book Hollywood Forever, on “what hints at an ecstatic freedom of the mind but is actually our most tender disaster after birth” (I guess she means sex, heterosexually). Becky’s thrill is adamantine, ludic. Either the cocaine is also from ’61 or love is really the drug.

My friend Alan says that Twin Peaks: The Return is perfect because it manages to say exactly what David Lynch means: Our favorite auteur is funnier than ever, but he isn’t joking. My friend Fiona says he’s trying to get us all to transcendentally meditate, to slow down and stop thinking, which she’s into. As for me, the reason I feel so understood by Lynch is that, though like him I believe we do our best, and though sometimes our best is better than at other times, we can change very little besides ourselves, and our selves are in themselves not that significant. I believe in fate with every new year that repeats itself. I no longer believe that anything changes your life, your experience of life.

PARTS 6 & 7


“Everytime” x Twin Peaks theme mashup

THE SECOND-BEST USE of “Falling” outside the original Twin Peaks is on the fourth hour of Twin Peaks: The Return. Those vespertine keyboard notes, which used to go off with the regularity of an egg timer at an all-day diner, are saved until the moment you stop listening for them, and then: Officer Bobby Briggs (Dana Ashbrook) sees the portrait of Laura Palmer at the Twin Peaks Sheriff’s Department and cries like he’s never cried in his life. He cries like he’s never seen the very first episode of Twin Peaks, the one where everybody—hilariously—cries, or like he’s on a Twin Peaks–themed Saturday Night Live skit. Only Bobby, the former football star and de facto ex-boyfriend to the homecoming queen, also the first and most innocent suspect in her murder, would get in on the joke twenty-seven years late.

The first-best use of “Falling” is in a demented mashup with the sad Britney Spears song “Everytime” (2003), made for fun by the composer Conrad Tao. Mashups are not often taste-affirming, but this one stays on your tongue: a razor blade in an apple baked into a tart, served with vanilla ice cream as cold as love (colder than death). I couldn’t believe I’d never thought of Britney being Laura, had only thought of her being Lolita, but duh. A Pitchfork writer did think of it : Tom Ewing, in a post about how her 2007 album Blackoutsounds straight from the Black Lodge, wrote that “Palmer’s story is cliché—sour secrets of the suburban everygirl, virginal beauty off the rails—but it’s a cliché we have an endless appetite for: Witness the fascination with Britney Spears, and her messy life.” The exploding star’s “surrender of identity from track to track… to make individual songs more disorientating and thrilling” expresses what made Twin Peaks great, and “it wasn’t the central good-girl-gone-bad story, it was the strangeness liberated by the story.”

Britney co-wrote “Everytime” to get her boyfriend back. “Cry Me a River,” a massive hit for the single Justin Timberlake, turned rumors of her infidelity into widespread knowledge, and where another starlet (Mariah Carey then, Selena Gomez now) would have one-upped the allegations in a good-riddance banger, Britney, a heartbreakingly literal reader, responded in tears. Her concept for the music video, directed by David LaChapelle, involved an overdose, a drowning, and a reincarnation as a baby, but the record label wouldn’t let her die. (They should have hired our David.) The baby appeared as a more ambiguous symbol of rebirth, but seemed rather a harbinger: Within a year she was Mrs. Federline, and within three she was a barefoot, soon-to-be-single mom of two boys. She sold her Hollywood Hills mansion to Brittany Murphy, who lived there until she died in 2010. She bought and sold places in Malibu and New York City, then bought but could never resell a place on the edge of Mulholland Drive, a locale like “the lip of a pit, a vertiginous fall into destruction,” a Rolling Stone writer said . Though she did everything to stop being desirable, gaining weight, shaving her head, she was no less wanted (dead or alive). The Associated Press had twenty-two staffers on the Britney beat, and had her obituary prewritten. Dark nights she drove like Princess Di’s driver on Mulholland, daring paparazzi to finish the job. “I don’t know who you think I am, bitch,” Britney snapped at some fan at the mall, “but I’m not that person.” Paris Hilton nicknamed her “The Animal.”

Twin Peaks: The Return, 2017, still from a TV show on Showtime. Season 3.

Lynch likes to dance around the paradox of Schrödinger’s cat, a famous thought experiment wherein a cat occupies a box, concealed from the viewer, containing death-triggers arranged to give it a fifty-fifty chance of survival, so that Kitty is both dead or alive, or either, until we look inside. Martha P. Nochimson, in her 2013 survey of quantum physics in his later films, David Lynch  Swerves, suggests that while Schrödinger didn’t think the cat could be both, Lynch does. While making Eraserhead (1977), Lynch obtained a cat’s corpse from a veterinarian on the condition that the cat not appear, or be recognizable, in the film; we have never been told how he honored this condition, but it’s easy to think that the cat, preserved in formaldehyde, then dissected, helped form the inhuman baby birthed at the end. In The Secret Diary of Laura Palmer (1990), the bestselling tie-in written by a twenty-two-year-old Jennifer Lynch, we read that the day Laura’s cat got run over (“I can’t believe someone could hit a cat like that, right in the middle of the day, and not tell someone”) turned into the night she first had sex, and felt black and hot and nowhere near good inside, sure as a teen can be that no one knew who she really was. Lynch, after Twin Peaks, has brought heroines from Betty Elms (Naomi Watts) to Nikki Grace (Laura Dern) ever closer to “superposition”—that is, being at once dark and light, particle and antiparticle, unknowing which form is her particular, original one.

The sixth and seventh hours of The Return bring us a long-missing piece of Laura’s diary, found by Hawk as the Lady’s Log predicted: in a funny, flimsy string of coincidences (a coin rolls under a bathroom stall door, a crack appears in the door) that signal his heritage. Sheriff Frank Truman (Robert Forster) holds a page to the camera and reads aloud a dream in which Annie Blackburn, played by Heather Graham on Twin Peaks, and Special Agent Dale Cooper (Kyle MacLachlan) are in the Black Lodge. Annie says that the real (good) Cooper can’t get out. This dream belongs to a future long gone and is the closest we’ve gotten to finding out how Annie’s doing. Laura wrote out her death before it happened. Maybe she also wrote her reincarnation. Reading along, we see that Truman skips one word, after the name Annie, in brackets: me??!!! Laura had never been seen in the same room as Annie, who spent five years in a convent after trying suicide, and Cooper only came to Twin Peaks after Laura was killed.

Graham was introduced to the show’s second season because Lara Flynn Boyle, who played Laura’s best friend Donna, was dating MacLachlan, and was annoyed by his on-screen romance with Sherilyn Fenn, who was already the fan favorite, as Audrey Horne. The show gave in, and Cooper got a girlfriend his own age. But Lynch as usual is getting his way in the end. Neither Boyle nor Graham is present or accounted for in The Return, while Sheryl Lee’s Laura appears in one form or another every hour, and Fenn’s reappearance has been promised at least a dozen times. As I’m given to wonder whether Laura is alive, whether she was Annie all along, or Annie her, I can hear Donna screaming in the cemetery: “You’re gone, Laura, but your problems keep hanging around! It’s almost like they didn’t bury you deep enough!”

Maybe the absence of Graham and Boyle isn’t so deep. Both actresses are a little too available, and would be dated and outclassed next to two arrivals: Watts, who has never looked stronger, and Dern. Both stars ascended via Lynch, and both do credible impressions of the boy scout from Missoula, with Dern emphasizing his backwards charm and vivifying, in-your-face ebullience, Watts his obstinate, encouraging screech.

Watts retains a trace sour-sweetness of that impression in her turn as Janey-E Jones, the long-suffering wife of Dougie, or Cooper, fending off anyone who’d make him suffer, too. There are the men to whom he owes a major gambling debt. Then there are the men, presumably hired by the vile Mr. C, also Cooper, who think his debt is eternal. When three indistinguishable policemen arrive at the offices of Lucky 777 Insurance with some questions about Dougie’s missing car, Janey-E is there to answer for him. Policeman number two asks if there’s a reason Dougie didn’t report it stolen. “Reason? Yeah, I’ll tell you a reason,” she snaps. “There’s more to life than cars.” Watts has a face so fine-formed as to convey a barely suppressed laughter at how mad she is, while getting still madder. “What were you going to do, break his legs?” she says when the bookies tell her how much Dougie owes. “Fifty thousand dollars is more than anyone can make, let alone with a broken leg.” They will take the twenty-eight grand Janey-E gives them, and they will be grateful. “Tough dame,” says one to the other.

Twin Peaks: The Return, 2017, still from a TV show on Showtime. Season 3. Diane Evans (Laura Dern).

“She’s a tough cookie, always has been,” says FBI Regional Bureau Chief Gordon Cole (David Lynch) to his right-hand man Albert (Miguel Ferrara), thinking in admiration of Cooper’s ex-secretary, played by Dern. The actress is hardly recognizable when for the first time ever we see the mythic Diane, mid-forties, in a silver-white, obvious wig, with a freshly lit cigarette; it’s the way she holds it, tall and accusatory, that gives her away. In Dern’s second film with Lynch, the horrifying romantic comedy Wild at Heart (1990), she and her costar, Nicholas Cage, smoked constantly in so pronounced a fashion that the cigarettes were like tiny signal flares spelling out messages. She looked, like she does now, hot from spitting distance and molten up close. “I like a woman who talks tough and… fucks like a bunny,” says Bobby Peru, a Latino gangster type whose middle name is Problematiqué, played in Wild at Heart by a moustachio’d Willem Dafoe, before he zanily rapes her.

What we know of Diane’s relationship to Cooper is very little, but what we remember best of Cooper was given straight to Diane. “Diane, I’m looking at a small box of chocolate bunnies,” or “I’m eating a wonderful cherry pie,” or “I’ve got to find out what these trees are,” the agent would say into his tape recorder, and the secretary, who would have been college-aged, got the tapes in the mail. One night after Cooper returned as other than himself, he went to see Diane and something happened. We better pray it wasn’t rape, which unlike murder can happen to you more than once, a statistical truth that eludes male filmmakers who treat it as a one-night-only life-changing event.

Whatever it was, it’s enough. Cooper is imprisoned in the Dakotas? “Good.” The FBI needs her to see whether it’s really Cooper? “Fuck you, Gordon,” she says to Gordon. “Fuck you, Albert,” she says to Albert. A youngish female agent who, with her black patent pumps and pencil skirts, is given little actual work, tries to talk to Diane, and Diane politely asks her name: Tammy (Chrysta Bell). “Fuck you,” she says. “Tammy.” (Bell reacts as usual, blinking and widening her eyes and rolling her head, like a sexbot being reprogrammed. Everyone seems to agree that Tammy should get fucked.)

Diane’s scorn for older men and the babes who go along with them is insufficient to stop her curiosity, and she goes along too to South Dakota, dressed like a wonder. Her tight-fitted top looks sewn from the faux-silk leaves of a Christmas poinsettia. Her nails are painted each a different color, to match her outfit. Earrings rhyme on her ears. False lashes look like upended garden rakes. She carries a tapestried bag, a leopard-skin jacket, and a mini-bottle of vodka, bangles clattering with each unconcealed swig. After seeing the real bad Cooper, she can only drink more.

“It isn’t time passing,” Diane says in a sob to Gordon Cole. No, wait—the breaking lines should be heard not in quotes but as the bridge and the chorus in a plangent pop song.

It isn’t time passing
Or how he’s changed
Or the way he looks
It’s something here…
It’s something that definitely isn’t here

Jennifer Lynch did her own impression of David in her debut feature film, Boxing Helena(1993), starring Fenn as what else, a beautiful woman, held captive and amputated by a plastic surgeon (Bill Paxton). Lynch’s mom had a replica of the Venus de Milo in her living room, and both son and granddaughter were fascinated. Lynch Sr., in early hours of The Return, gave us a Venus in the Red Room with one arm disappearing and reappearing, perhaps corresponding to the new inhuman strength in Cooper’s arm, one trait shared by Mr. C and Dougie. Lynch Jr., interviewed in 2012, said she grew up noticing “people didn’t see [the Venus] as broken, they saw her as beautiful.” Inspirational quotes aside, it’s not very original to put a chick in a box, and Boxing Helena unpacked its metaphors clumsily, lacked brilliance, facetiousness. Still, had this been a Lynch or Cronenberg movie in that same year, there would have been protests and feminist remonstrations and bad, angry reviews, but with the apposite consequence, the devil-advocated redemption in cult status. A daughter who wants to please men and herself at the same time tends to seem less desirous than needy, and anyone’s open needs are hard to see (e.g. in Lynch’s Blue Velvet [1986], I find it harder to watch Isabella Rossellini beg to be held than to watch her be raped).

Elders who fail their children are a constant, discordant theme on Twin Peaks, cranked to eleven on The Return. Coop as Dougie bonds with Dougie’s son in a moment like the one inParis, Texas (1984), when the man played by Harry Dean Stanton, having wandered for seven years in the desert and forgotten his name, reunites with his eight-year-old son. InThe Return, Carl Rodd (also Harry Dean Stanton, now like a hundred years old) sits on a bench and sees a little kid, playing tag with his mother, get hit by a truck on the run. As the boy dies a gold mist rises upward, where a certain telephone pole, significant in Twin Peaks: Fire Walk with Me (1992), bears the number six. Another boy is nearly blasted to bits by the car bomb planted for Dougie, while at home his drug-addicted mother (Hailey Benton Gates), chants 119 like 911 backwards.

Twin Peaks: The Return, 2017, still from a TV show on Showtime. Season 3. Diane Evans (Laura Dern).

Lynch uses numerological phenomena more for effect, and for a generalized sense of consequentiality, than for narrative’s sake. “In real life, there is no algebra,” said Audrey Horne twenty-seven years ago. “In evil, as in dreams, there are not multiple interpretations,” said Simone Weil before that. Lynch solves for evil, plain and simple. His relentless sensationalization of human-on-human crime serves an upbeat message, which is that violence is bad, and when violence is worse than bad, gratuitous, that too is the point. He refuses to lessen evil by making sense of it. Innocence heightens his propaganda, but whether a harmed child or woman, or less often a man, was ever that innocent doesn’t matter to his conception of harm-doing, the underlying fault. (That the man Leland Palmer killed was a lowlife suspected in his daughter’s death made no difference to Cooper: “Do you approve of murder, Doctor Hayward?” Lynch is not a doctor. He can’t stomach explanations. Nor is he a math man.)

At the end of the seventh hour of The Return, a guy sweeps the floor at a familiar roadhouse, owned by the Renaults. For two minutes and ten seconds, there’s only the sweeping. A phone rings. A Renault (Walter Olkewicz) answers, and hears that some exaggeration of fate has befallen two young prostitutes who report to him, girls who are definitely of age, definitely not a problem, he says, “two fifteen-year-old, straight-A whores.” I guess I shouldn’t be laughing. One reason Lynch gets away with his treatment of women is that the women aren’t crazy nor understood as such. Almost no one is crazy in his “strange worlds,” to quote MacLachlan and Dern in Blue Velvet, yet when specifically female characters are sane against the odds, women notice and grin. Being insane in this world is only natural, not an excuse. Britney knew, and didn’t pretend her beloved self was the real one, so that now when she’s a good mom, happy in pictures, she is also—at best—half here, half disappeared on Mulholland.

Who are we when we’re not ourselves? Who else could we possibly be? Lynch takes this possibility seriously. Who are you, screamed Laura at BOB, the killer possessing her dad, or maybe her real dad. Who are you, screams Diane at Mr. Cooper, perhaps the new BOB. Everyone wants to hear that evil is inhuman. Who wants to hear the answer: Me??!! So the answer’s withheld.

PS: It has to be said, and should have been said earlier, that I hate this show. I resent it; it takes over my mind. Walking through quondam neighborhoods of mine in New York, I notice that a mediocre French restaurant I loved, while looking exactly the same, has been renamed The Black Lodge. An ex-lover who doesn’t like the internet, doesn’t read my writing, and didn’t know there was a new Twin Peaks sent a text to say he just watchedBlue Velvet and “for some reason” thought of me. (Maybe he goes on my Instagram.) A publishing house sends me a novel, The Incest Diary, anonymously penned by a woman who was raped—who seduced, she says sometimes, or let herself be screwed—by her father. Ray Wise, who plays Leland Palmer, once said of Lynch that “his take on life is weird because life is weird.” I always have looked for echoes.

A man using the name “David Lynch” starts emailing me from Washington, DC, where he runs a small bookstore and reads everything he can about Twin Peaks. At first he seems interested in discourse, accuses my reviews of having “more red herrings than the show.” When I stop responding, he sends plaintive follow-ups: “kitten?”

PART 8

Twin Peaks: The Return, 2017, still from a TV show on Showtime. Season 3, episode 9.

FLAMMABLE AND INFLAMMABLE both mean “easy to burn,” though many people have tested their luck by reading inflammable as “fire-proof.” Flammable is, in one sense, how Lynch pronounces human. On the eighth and finest hour of Twin Peaks: The Return, his elegant pyrotechnics commemorate the birth of today’s America, and a near-wordless script shows that whether you describe a monstrous act as human or inhuman, you are right. But you are not trying to be right, you’re trying to be sincere, an effort so helpless as to defer meaning. Igor Stravinsky, a man so depraved he once asked the Nazis—nicely—to unban his works, felt sincerity in art to be “a sine qua non that at the same time guarantees nothing.”

That there are no more guarantees in Lynch’s late direction is obvious. Ditto that this eighteen-part limited series, a presumptive sinecure for Lynch that he took as a gamble instead, has proved auteurs are so necessary. I knew as soon as the “retired” filmmaker signed on with Showtime, having shrugged off the network’s first offer, and demanded, in addition to full control, a bigger budget, that The Return would be great. Why else would Irecap a television show, a task for which the term “armchair critic” was designed, and which is, accordingly, thankless and useless!? Prepared to be wowed, I still wasn’t ready for the unplugged rage and beauty of this episode, titled—I forgot the episodes have titles, but this one is very good—“The Last Evening.” Stravinsky would find it pleasurable. I did not. I recommend watching it twice.

The first thing that happens has happened before. On the eighth episode of the originalTwin Peaks (1990–91), Special Agent Dale Cooper (Kyle MacLachlan) opens the door to his room at the Great Northern only to be greeted by Josie Packard (Joan Chen), the shenanigans-loving owner of the Packard Sawmill, with a gun and three bullets to his chest. Now, five minutes into part eight of The Return, a friend named Ray (some friend) turns around on Mr. C, Cooper’s apparent doppelganger, and shoots him thrice. He dies, which is a shame because he just got out of prison. Ray (George Griffith) feels fine about it. But lo, from the woods emerge phantasms in sackcloth and ashes, or regular clothes they haven’t washed in decades. The Woodsmen, as they’re called in the credits, swarm around the body, making a performance out of exorcism or resuscitation, until the face of BOB appears in an amniotic bubble drawn from Mr. C’s chest. Ray drives off.
Interlude: Nine Inch Nails, live at the old roadhouse, play their 2016 song “She’s Gone Away.” Trent Reznor excellently impersonates a screaming BOB. The track sounds like it features a large elephant, but no elephant is to be seen. Mysterious.
Cooper sits up in a jolt.

[INFIAMMABILE E INFIAMMABILE significano entrambi “facile da bruciare”, anche se molte persone hanno testato la loro fortuna leggendo infiammabile come “a prova di fuoco”. Infiammabile è, in un certo senso, come Lynch pronuncia umano. Nell’ottava e migliore ora di Twin Peaks: The Return, i suoi eleganti fuochi d’artificio commemorano la nascita dell’America di oggi, e un copione quasi privo di parole mostra che se descrivi un atto mostruoso come umano o inumano, hai ragione. Ma tu non stai cercando di essere nel giusto, stai cercando di essere sincero, uno sforzo così indifeso da rinviare il significato. Igor Stravinskij, un uomo così depravato che una volta chiese ai nazisti – graziosamente – di disfare le sue opere, sentì la sincerità nell’arte di essere “un sine qua non che allo stesso tempo non garantisce nulla”.

Che non ci siano più garanzie nella defunta direzione di Lynch è ovvio. Idem che questa serie limitata di diciotto parti, un presunto sinecure per Lynch che ha invece preso come scommessa, ha dimostrato che gli autori sono così necessari. Sapevo che non appena il regista “in pensione” ha firmato con Showtime, dopo essersi scrollato di dosso la prima offerta della rete, e richiesto, oltre al pieno controllo, un budget più grande, che The Return sarebbe stato grandioso. Perché altrimenti farebbe Irecap un programma televisivo, un compito per il quale il termine “critico da poltrona” è stato progettato, e che è, di conseguenza, ingrato e inutile !? Preparato ad essere stupito, non ero ancora pronto per la rabbia e la bellezza di questo episodio, intitolato – ho dimenticato che gli episodi hanno titoli, ma questo è molto buono – “The Last Evening”. Stravinsky lo troverebbe piacevole. Io no. Consiglio di guardarlo due volte.

La prima cosa che succede è successo prima. Nell’ottavo episodio dell’originaleTwin Peaks (1990-91), l’agente speciale Dale Cooper (Kyle MacLachlan) apre la porta della sua stanza al Great Northern solo per essere accolto da Josie Packard (Joan Chen), la proprietaria amante dello shenanigans di il Packard Sawmill, con una pistola e tre proiettili sul petto. Ora, cinque minuti nella parte otto di The Return, un amico di nome Ray (un amico) si gira intorno al signor C, l’apparente doppelganger di Cooper, e gli spara tre volte. Muore, ed è un peccato perché è appena uscito di prigione. Ray (George Griffith) si sente bene a riguardo. Ma ecco, dai boschi emergono fantasmi in sacco e cenere, o abiti regolari che non hanno lavato da decenni. I Woodsmen, come vengono chiamati nei titoli di coda, sciamano intorno al corpo, eseguendo un’esibizione dall’esorcismo o dalla rianimazione, fino a quando il volto di BOB appare in una bolla amniotica disegnata dal petto del signor C. Ray si allontana.
Interlude: Nine Inch Nails, dal vivo al vecchio roadhouse, suona la loro canzone del 2016 “She’s Gone Away.” Trent Reznor impersona egregiamente un BOB urlante. La traccia sembra avere un grande elefante, ma nessun elefante deve essere visto. Misterioso.
Cooper si siede in una scossa.]


Nine Inch Nails performs “She’s Gone Away” on Twin Peaks: The Return

Stravinsky debuted The Rite of Spring for the Ballets Russes’s Paris season at the Théâtre des Champs-Élysées on May 29, 1913, a year and two months before Germany declared war on France. There were riots, and (mocking?) calls for a doctor. There were objections to the story, about a young woman who voluntarily dances herself to death in a needed sacrifice to the renewing world; to the frustrating score, which one critic exclaimed “always goes to the note next to the one you expect,” and the concussive or even seizure-like rhythms; and to the dancing, by Nijinsky, so inconcinnus, visceral. Twenty-five years later, the Manhattan Project began with the discovery of nuclear fission, and a year after that World War II began. Then The Rite of Spring made perfect sense.

Imagine having been a child in the jaundiced dawn of the Atomic Age, anticipating the death of all you’d known, the reality at Hiroshima and Nagasaki transposed on your Manhattan, or your Missoula, Montana. Imagine seeing one photograph in particular, depicting the instant shared death of a hundred thousand people and thinking, “I have an idea.” Seeing a perfect image in . . . a mushroom cloud, and making it your own. Who is so outrageous? Sylvia Plath? Bruce Conner? I would kill someone to have that kind of brain, which is why God didn’t give it to me. He gave it to Lynch, who reappears on The Return as FBI Regional Bureau Chief Gordon Cole, now with a fancier office, and behind his wide desk, as we saw in the third hour, a wider black-and-white photograph of a nuclear blast. Five hours later, this completely inappropriate decorating choice is explained.

We go to the first detonation of an atomic bomb, in White Sands, New Mexico, on July 16, 1945, at 5:45 AM (MWT). The date and time, with its stressed specificity, is like an evangelical’s save-the-date for this year’s doomsday. The Trinity Test we are about to see did in fact take place, but a shimmer of unlikelihood, like this is unbelievable, remains. The cloud mushrooms and swallows the camera, so it feels like we’re shrinking, like Alice in . . . Hell. The colors are too much for words: imperial purple, incarnadine orange, gold. (Lynch, in his wonderfully inadequate explanation for dissecting a stranger’s recently deceased cat in his basement, said that “when I opened up the inside, it was unbelievable—the organs inside the cat were brilliant colors, and as soon as the air got to them, all the color started draining out, right before your eyes.”) The rest of the episode is in lambent black-and-white, as in Lynch’s Eraserhead (1977). There are quivering shots, almost stills, displaying staticky, patterned abstractions that look like Ross Bleckner’s paintings after AIDS.Bleckner has said that the disease, with its radioactive threat, was “a total paradigm shift in consciousness, a rupture.”

[Stravinsky ha debuttato The Rite of Spring per la stagione di Parigi dei Ballets Russes al Théâtre des Champs-Élysées il 29 maggio 1913, un anno e due mesi prima che la Germania dichiarasse guerra alla Francia. Ci sono state rivolte e (beffardo?) Chiede un dottore. C’erano obiezioni alla storia, su una giovane donna che si dona volontariamente alla morte in un sacrificio necessario al mondo che rinnova; alla colonna sonora frustrante, che un critico esclamò “va sempre alla nota accanto a quella che ti aspetti”, e ai ritmi concussivi o addirittura sequestri; e alla danza, di Nijinsky, così inconcinata, viscerale. Venticinque anni dopo, il Progetto Manhattan iniziò con la scoperta della fissione nucleare, e un anno dopo iniziò la Seconda Guerra Mondiale. Quindi The Rite of Spring ha perfettamente senso.

Immagina di essere stato un bambino nell’aurora dell’età atomica, anticipando la morte di tutto ciò che avevi conosciuto, la realtà di Hiroshima e Nagasaki trasposta sulla tua Manhattan o sulla tua Missoula, nel Montana. Immagina di vedere una fotografia in particolare, raffigurante l’istantanea morte condivisa di centomila persone e pensare: “Ho un’idea”. Vedere un’immagine perfetta dentro . . una nube di funghi, e rendendola tua. Chi è così oltraggioso? Sylvia Plath? Bruce Conner? Ucciderei qualcuno per avere quel tipo di cervello, ed è per questo che Dio non me lo ha dato. Lo diede a Lynch, che riappare in The Return come capo dell’ufficio regionale dell’FBI, Gordon Cole, ora con un ufficio più elaborato, e dietro la sua ampia scrivania, come abbiamo visto nella terza ora, una più ampia fotografia in bianco e nero di un nucleare Blast. Cinque ore più tardi, viene spiegata questa scelta di decorazione del tutto inappropriata.

Andiamo alla prima detonazione di una bomba atomica, a White Sands, New Mexico, il 16 luglio 1945, alle 5:45 AM (MWT). La data e l’ora, con la sua accentuata specificità, è come la salva-data di un evangelico per il giorno del giudizio di quest’anno. Il Trinity Test che stiamo per vedere ha effettivamente avuto luogo, ma rimane un brivido di improbabilità, come questo è incredibile. La nuvola fa funghi e ingoia la macchina fotografica, quindi sembra che stiamo restringendo, come Alice dentro. . . Inferno. I colori sono troppo per le parole: viola imperiale, arancio incarnadine, oro. (Lynch, nella sua spiegazione meravigliosamente inadeguata per dissezionare il gatto di un estraneo recentemente defunto nel suo seminterrato, ha detto che “quando ho aperto l’interno, era incredibile – gli organi all’interno del gatto erano colori brillanti, e non appena l’aria arrivava a loro, tutto il colore ha iniziato a svuotarsi, proprio davanti ai tuoi occhi. “) Il resto dell’episodio è in bianco e nero, come in Lynch’s Eraserhead (1977). Ci sono scatti tremanti, quasi immagini fisse, che mostrano astrazioni statiche e modellate che assomigliano ai dipinti di Ross Bleckner dopo l’AIDS. Beckner ha detto che la malattia, con la sua minaccia radioattiva, era “un cambio di paradigma totale nella coscienza, una rottura”.]

The vertiginous cinematography, the sensation of falling through a long telescope, and the upheaving sound track—Penderecki’s 1960 “Threnody to the Victims at Hiroshima”—could make anyone remember Stanley Kubrick, particularly his 2001: A Space Odyssey(1968). (Remember, too, the strange love is mutual: Kubrick screened Eraserhead for the cast and crew of The Shining (1980), to set the mood.) The way certain images vibrate and rattle like in a skull, lighting up the brain like a pinball machine, makes me think about the similar cracked landscapes (deserts, casinos, labyrinthian motels) of Nina Menkes, the under-known auteur who shares with Lynch a devotion to Buñuel and Maya Deren, and to Jungian views on the underworld. Menkes once told an interviewer that she takes cues from a Gertrude Stein lecture, “What Are Masterpieces and Why Are There So Few of Them?,” which she paraphrased, saying, “If you re-create something, it doesn’t have the organic precision of the spontaneous moment of creation.” (This is one reason that remakes of most films, reboots of most television shows, are unwise no matter how welcome.)

[La vertiginosa cinematografia, la sensazione di cadere attraverso un lungo cannocchiale e la colonna sonora che si sta sollevando, Penderecki del 1960 “Threnody to the Victims at Hiroshima”, potrebbe far ricordare a tutti Stanley Kubrick, in particolare 2001: A Space Odyssey (1968). (Ricorda anche che lo strano amore è reciproco: Kubrick ha proiettato Eraserhead per il cast e la troupe di The Shining (1980), per creare l’atmosfera.) Il modo in cui certe immagini vibrano e scuotono come in un teschio, illuminando il cervello come un il flipper, mi fa pensare ai paesaggi simili screpolati (deserti, casinò, motel labirinti) di Nina Menkes, l’autore meno conosciuto che condivide con Lynch una devozione per Buñuel e Maya Deren, e per le vedute junghiane sugli inferi. Menkes una volta ha detto a un intervistatore che lei prende spunti da una conferenza di Gertrude Stein, “What Are Masterpieces and Why Are There So Few of Them?”, Che lei ha parafrasato, dicendo: “Se ricrea qualcosa, non ha il precisione organica del momento spontaneo della creazione. “(Questa è una delle ragioni per cui i remake della maggior parte dei film, i riavvii della maggior parte degli spettacoli televisivi, sono sconsigliati, indipendentemente da quanto siano graditi).]

Twin Peaks: The Return, 2017, still from a TV show on Showtime. Season 3, episode 8. Laura Palmer (Sheryl Lee).

Why, seventy years after Stein, are there even fewer masterpieces per capita? Because generations of artists found it impossible to compete with a masterpiece, a “total paradigm shift in consciousness” like AIDS, or the A-Bomb. Lynch excels at creative recursion, starting with a simple, paradigmatic binary, the zero and one of dark and light, or Adam and Eve, that turns out to launch a Fibonacci spiral, and when he repeats himself it’s more like he never forgets. After the detonation, we see the Woodsmen at a convenience store and gas station, shuffling in stop-motion before drifting out like unstrung marionettes, a choreography recalling the sexless—automated but not easy—dancing we saw at the start of Mulholland Drive (2001), the chaste couples swinging off-time with their shadows. Nine years later, in the same area, a tumescent, hideous insect emerges from a small, mottled carapace that looks like the shit-talking wad of gum in the Black Lodge. A girl and a boy walk past the empty gas station; he asks whether she likes some song, she lets slip that she knows where he goes to school. What echoes is the meet-cute between Sandy Williams (Laura Dern) and Jeffrey Beaumont (Kyle MacLachlan) in Lynch’s Blue Velvet (1986), when Sandy “just knows” who he is. Reincarnation, hinted at where two people feel like they’ve known each other forever, is a funny principle, and more spontaneous in its way than creation, certainly a more unlikely and difficult principle for a creator to assume.

Meanwhile, on a two-lane road, a husband and wife stop the car so some Woodsmen can cross. One comes to the car, sticks his head in the window, and points with a cigarette. “Got a light?” he says, his voice a cello bow scraped across a rock face. “Got a light?” At a radio station the DJ is playing a song and his secretary is busy. A mechanic listens while burning the midnight oil; a waitress while cleaning up at the diner; and the girl in her flowered bedroom, dreaming about the boy she just kissed. When the twilight has gone, the song goes, and no songbirds are singing. The Woodsman enters the station, and the secretary moves toward him in an awful trance. “Got a light?” he says, but by now it is evident that nobody has a goddamn lighter.

[Perché, settant’anni dopo Stein, ci sono ancora meno capolavori pro capite? Perché generazioni di artisti hanno trovato impossibile competere con un capolavoro, un “cambio di paradigma totale nella coscienza” come l’AIDS, o la bomba atomica. Lynch eccelle nella ricorsione creativa, a partire da un semplice, paradigmatico binario, lo zero e uno di oscurità e luce, o Adamo ed Eva, che si scopre per lanciare una spirale di Fibonacci, e quando si ripete è più come se non dimenticasse mai. Dopo la detonazione, vediamo i Woodsmen in un minimarket e una stazione di servizio, mescolando in stop-motion prima di andare alla deriva come marionette senza corda, una coreografia che ricorda la danza senza sesso automatizzata ma non facile che abbiamo visto all’inizio di Mulholland Drive (2001 ), le caste coppie oscillano fuori tempo con le loro ombre. Nove anni dopo, nella stessa zona, un insetto tumultuoso e orribile emerge da un piccolo carapace chiazzato che assomiglia al gomitolo di gomma da masticare nella Black Lodge. Una ragazza e un ragazzo passano davanti alla stazione di servizio vuota; lui chiede se le piace qualche canzone, lei lascia scivolare che lei sa dove va a scuola. Quello che echeggia è l’incontro tra Sandy Williams (Laura Dern) e Jeffrey Beaumont (Kyle MacLachlan) in Lynch’s Blue Velvet (1986), quando Sandy “solo sa” chi è. La reincarnazione, alludendo a due persone che si sentono come se si conoscessero da sempre, è un principio divertente e più spontaneo a suo modo della creazione, certamente un principio più improbabile e difficile da assumere per un creatore.

Nel frattempo, su una strada a due corsie, un marito e una moglie fermano la macchina così alcuni Woodsmen possono attraversare. Uno arriva alla macchina, infila la testa nella finestra e indica con una sigaretta. “Hai una luce?” Dice, la sua voce un arco di violoncello raschiato su una parete rocciosa. “Hai una luce?” In una stazione radio il DJ sta suonando una canzone e la sua segretaria è occupata. Un meccanico ascolta mentre brucia l’olio di mezzanotte; una cameriera mentre pulisce al ristorante; e la ragazza nella sua camera da letto fiorita, a sognare il ragazzo che aveva appena baciato. Quando il crepuscolo è sparito, la canzone va, e nessun uccello canterino canta. Il Woodsman entra nella stazione, e il segretario si muove verso di lui in una trance terribile. “Hai una luce?” Dice, ma ormai è evidente che nessuno ha un maledetto accendino.

The Woodsman begins to crush skulls, killing first the secretary, then the DJ. Lynch openedWild at Heart (1990) with Sailor (Nicolas Cage) crushing a man’s skull in much the same way, like saying, “It’s not all in your head now, is it.” This is not the best way to communicate, but it does grant the Woodsman access to more listeners, and taking the DJ’s microphone, he prophesies:

[The Woodsman inizia a schiacciare teschi, uccidendo prima la segretaria, poi il DJ. Lynch ha aperto Wild at Heart (1990) con Sailor (Nicolas Cage) che schiaccia il cranio di un uomo più o meno allo stesso modo, come dire “Non è tutto nella tua testa ora, vero?” Questo non è il modo migliore di comunicare, ma concede al Woodsman l’accesso a più ascoltatori e, prendendo il microfono del DJ, profetizza:]

This is the water,
and this is the well . . .
The horse is the white of the eyes,
and dark within.

Someone whose primary reaction to the surreal is to say, “Whoaaaa,” and then nothing, eliminating hassles of the mind by believing “the work speaks for itself,” will take the sequence to be mere proof that Lynch explodes brains. Someone more inclined to believe that the work speaks about itself will recognize the white horse from Sarah Palmer’s premonitions and the Red Room, a harbinger of death—like in the Book of Revelation, and more ambiguously in Godard’s King Lear (1987, another ultimate late film). I’m nervous about being spoken to, but I have some old-fashioned faith in pure symbolism: what a white horse means to a girl who cannot dream of riding one. Death is too near life to be symbolized, but a dying wish, or even a death wish, can be a symbol—if it can be nothing else.

[Qualcuno la cui reazione primaria al surreale è di dire “Whoaaaa”, e poi nulla, eliminando i fastidi della mente credendo che “il lavoro parla da sé”, prenderà la sequenza per essere una semplice prova che Lynch esplode il cervello. Qualcuno più incline a credere che il lavoro parla di sé riconoscerà il cavallo bianco dalle premonizioni di Sarah Palmer e dalla Sala Rossa, un precursore di morte nel Libro dell’Apocalisse, e più ambiguo nel Re Lear di Godard (1987, un altro ultimo in ritardo film). Sono nervoso all’idea di parlare, ma ho una fede antiquata nel puro simbolismo: cosa significa un cavallo bianco per una ragazza che non può sognare di cavalcarne uno. La morte è troppo vicina alla vita per essere simbolizzata, ma un desiderio morente, o anche un desiderio di morte, può essere un simbolo – se non può essere nient’altro.]

Twin Peaks: The Return, 2017, still from a TV show on Showtime. Season 3, episode 8.

Maybe the best thing about Lynch is his absolute refusal to leave America. When he is not on earth, he is still in America; when he is dreaming, he is still in America. Mid-episode, between 1945 and 1956 on the clock, he takes us across a livid sea to a Streamline Moderne kind of castle, where the Giant (Carel Struycken) lives with a silent woman (Leslie Berger), made up for a silent film, in sequins. A gramophone, the jacquard clamshell settee, the Tiffany lamps, all telegraph the Jazz Age, while the crepitant electricity takes me back to the night Frankenstein’s bride was born, in the mid-1930s. A spotlight follows the woman who follows the Giant across the empty floor of a theater, going right up to the screen, where the explosion, the stars, the gas station, the face of BOB on an asteroid, all we saw, replays to the Giant’s astonishment. He levitates and issues from his eyeballs a primordial gold light and dust (like we saw when the little boy dies on the street in the sixth hour), followed by a golden orb (like the one formed from the body of Dougie Jones when he trades places with Cooper in the Red Room). The orb bears Laura Palmer’s face, mirroring the asteroid as if she and BOB were obverse, but they’re also separate, equal and whole. Lynch does not have to follow Marguerite Duras to Hiroshima to get to the other side. He locates (in)humanity at the test site, where for two hundred miles around there was no human presence: a void, in other words, where a nation usurped its own God so there was no one else left to blame for evil.

“The real question this episode asks,” says the critic Sean T. Collins for Rolling Stone, “is no more or less than the one pilot Robert A. Lewis asked [somewhat apocryphally] when he dropped the atomic bomb on Hiroshima: My god, what have we done?” Lewis said that as long as he lived, he would never forget those few minutes. He never attended a reunion of the flight crew. He spent the rest of his life working in a candy factory, a common way to make a good living, but one that, reduced to a biographical footnote, reads like an overstatement on manufacturing innocence. Lynch and Frost could have written a man like Lewis, a sweet man, no doubt, who died of a plain old heart attack, a touch on the young side. How dare we go on, is the follow-up question, and how do we?

The Woodsman’s words make the waitress faint at the diner and the mechanic collapse while the engine runs. The girl only sleeps. The insect comes to her open window, and her mouth opens, so it crawls in. I guess she could have let him in devil-like by having succumbed to temptation with a boy, but really the sin is of the father, the scene incestuous, as ever with Lynch.

PARTS 9 & 10

Twin Peaks: The Return, 2017, still from a TV show on Showtime. Season 3, episode 10.

“ELECTRICITY IS HUMMING,” says the Log Lady to Hawk in the tenth hour of Twin Peaks: The Return. She says “electricity” like she’s a kid with a crush on Ben Franklin. She says it flows like a river and is heard in the river, too, and in the mountains, and is seen to glow around the moon. It’s a long conjure, electricity: a literal expression of magic that also connotes the satisfying pop of eureka, the blue purl of genius finding its vessel, a longed-for apotheosis, like when wires burst and flood the walls with lightning as Henry unites with the Lady in the Radiator in Eraserhead (1977). Drama like that can’t happen with technology unplugged, devices wireless, noiseless, eliciting idioms like “losing connection,” as if “connected” is our natural state and nothing is immanent. “In these days, the glow is dying,” the Log Lady says. “What will be in the darkness that remains?”

Any comment on “these days” from a woman who’s been using a log as a pager since the 1980s is bound to be iffy, but then she may mean “decades” by “days.” Lynch uses new, dated, and totally out-of-date technology to juggle the times. He takes a bemused view of the latest devices, less like an old man yelling at clouds and more like an old man saying,How do you know the clouds aren’t talking to us? Why do you need a phone to access the cloud? Here in Twin Peaks, devices such as Dale Cooper’s tape recorder, Gordon Cole’s hearing aid, and Dr. Jacoby’s coconut have been used to dramatize the minor struggle of saying what you mean and to turn up the funny polyphony, more than to help along the plot.

A pratfall performed solo and in tempo rubato by Candie (Amy Shiels), one of three bunny-type chicks in pink silk at the Silver Mustang Casino, ends with her using a remote control to whack a housefly, and with it (accidentally or Freudianly) her boss. In a dance of paired electrons, or a scene from a domestic comedy by an absurdist theater troupe, Andy and Lucy Brennan (Harry Goaz, Kimmy Robertson) look at the same chair on the same furniture-selling website at their separate desks, three steps apart. She gets up to tell him she really likes the beige one. He gets up to tell her he really likes the red. Then he says she can get the beige, and pleased, practically humming, she gets the red. Lynch will be damned if he lets technology make anything faster. Ages before Lucy fainted for the first time, and not for the last time, at the sight of Sheriff Frank Truman walking into the office while also talking with her on the phone, the director believed that a body could be in two places at once. He seems to appreciate the high-speed networked world, with its lapsed temporality and objects set loose in space, as a pastiche of his obviously superior dream one.

[“L’ELETTRICITÀ È UMORIA“, dice Log Lady a Hawk nella decima ora di Twin Peaks: The Return. Dice “elettricità” come se fosse una ragazzina con una cotta per Ben Franklin. Dice che scorre come un fiume e si sente anche nel fiume, e nelle montagne, e si vede brillare attorno alla luna. È una lunga evocazione, elettricità: un’espressione letterale di magia che connota anche il soddisfacente pop di Eureka, il blu rovina del genio che trova il suo vascello, un’apoteosi sospirata, come quando i cavi scoppiano e inondano le pareti di un fulmine mentre Henry si unisce con la signora nel Radiatore in Eraserhead (1977). Un dramma del genere non può accadere con la tecnologia scollegata, i dispositivi senza fili, senza rumore, suscitare idiomi come “perdere la connessione”, come se “connesso” fosse il nostro stato naturale e nulla fosse immanente. “In questi giorni, il bagliore sta morendo”, dice la Log Lady. “Cosa resterà nell’oscurità che rimane?”

Qualunque commento su “questi giorni” di una donna che usa un diario come cercapersone dagli anni ’80 è destinato a essere incerto, ma in questo caso può significare “decenni” di “giorni”. Lynch usa nuovi, datati e totalmente out- tecnologia di data per destreggiarsi tra i tempi. Guarda in modo stupefacente gli ultimi dispositivi, meno come un vecchio che urla alle nuvole e più come un vecchio che dice: Come fai a sapere che le nuvole non ci stanno parlando? Perché hai bisogno di un telefono per accedere al cloud? Qui a Twin Peaks, dispositivi come il registratore a nastro di Dale Cooper, l’apparecchio acustico di Gordon Cole e il cocco di Jacoby sono stati usati per drammatizzare la lotta minore per dire cosa intendi e per alzare la polifonia divertente, più che aiutare lungo il tracciare.

Un pratfall eseguito da solo e in tempo rubato da Candie (Amy Shiels), uno dei tre pulcini tipo coniglio in seta rosa al Silver Mustang Casino, termina con lei usando un telecomando per colpire una mosca domestica e con essa (accidentalmente o freudamente ) il suo capo. In una danza di elettroni accoppiati, o una scena di una commedia domestica di una troupe teatrale assurda, Andy e Lucy Brennan (Harry Goaz, Kimmy Robertson) guardano la stessa sedia sullo stesso sito di vendita di mobili nelle loro scrivanie separate, tre passi a parte. Si alza per dirgli che le piace molto quella beige. Si alza per dirle che gli piace davvero il rosso. Poi dice che può ottenere il beige, e compiaciuto, praticamente canticchiando, lei ottiene il rosso. Lynch sarà dannato se lascia che la tecnologia faccia qualcosa più velocemente. Prima che Lucy svenisse per la prima volta, e non per l’ultima volta, alla vista dello sceriffo Frank Truman che entrava in ufficio mentre parlava con lei al telefono, il regista credeva che un corpo potesse essere in due posti contemporaneamente. Sembra apprezzare il mondo in rete ad alta velocità, con la sua temporalità decaduta e gli oggetti dispersi nello spazio, come un pastiche del suo sogno ovviamente superiore.]

Twin Peaks: The Return, 2017, still from a TV show on Showtime. Season 3, episode 10. Sandie, Candie, and Mandie (Giselle DaMier, Amy Shiels, and Andréa Leal).

Anything can become anything else in a dream, and Lynch likes to get back at our devices, which try to expropriate our conscious and unconscious functions alike, by using them as props. Or abusing them, like when a resurrected Mr. C (Kyle MacLachlan) uses a hot-pink flip phone to tap out a single text, T9-style, before gratuitously shooting it to bits with a single-barrel rifle. “Around the dinner table,” says the text, “the conversation is lively.” In South Dakota, Diane (Laura Dern) smokes in the waiting room of a morgue (“It’s a fucking morgue,” she says when told she can’t smoke), while Gordon and Albert view the corpse of Major Briggs. She gets the text. Her hands don’t shake. Either Diane is as good an actress as Dern herself or she doesn’t know who she’s talking to. “They have Hastings,” she replies, off-screen, referring to the high-school principal (Matthew Lillard) charged with killing Ruth, the school librarian, and pairing her head with the Major’s body. “He’s going to take them to the site.” The FBI finds and reads the text, presenting a serious twist. And a smirk: Diane’s textually legible and “heavily encrypted” message, delivered via technologically superior means, is worse at conveying a secret than Mr. C’s unencrypted cryptic one.

Messages, either way, seem not to lose compression but to pick up resonance as they move through the air, giving humans on the other side of the screen a gravitas that normally belongs to spirits. Jacoby, formerly the town shrink, is now a charlatan with an hour-long weekly web series wherein he advances addled theories on why the world is so filled with shit, and then asks you to buy a gold (gold-painted) shovel, only $29.99, for the purpose of shit-digging. Whether this represents a real career change is unclear: Lynch is loud about distrusting analysis, psychiatric or otherwise; but he also shies from intelligence generally and does not seem to consider “conspiracy theorist” a slur. He once, twelve years ago, appeared on the Alex Jones Show with some questions about the events of 9/11, and there described intuition as “a flowing of knowingness,” also as “an ocean of solutions.” Plus, Jacoby’s monologue is gold. Pure anticapitalist gold: “We’re sheep to these monsters, and they don’t give a shit! We grow our wool, and just when we’re getting warm, they come along with their electric clippers, and shear our wool off, and we’re just naked, screaming little fucks!”

At the Great Northern Hotel in Twin Peaks, something is definitely ahum. The noise comes from the walls, giving owner Ben Horne (Richard Beymer) and his hot, boring assistant, Beverley (Ashley Judd), an opportunity to stand very close in the corner of an empty room, whispering. They could sleep together, except that Ben has a conscience, or enough trouble. His disabled adult son, Johnny (Eric Rondell), lives in constant danger of injuring himself in a big beige house owned by his ex-wife, Sylvia (Jan D’Arcy), and paid by alimony. His brother, Jerry (David Patrick Kelly), has been in the woods for days hunting a cell signal, playing the role of the too-stoned viewer at home: “I’ve been here before!” he screams. “I am not your foot!” screams his foot. We have to agree, ceci n’est pas un foot. Then there’s Audrey, the one beautiful member of his family who so far remains unseen. Maybe she’s screaming, “I am not your daughter.” Maybe she’s stuck in the walls? And all the while, the boy we assume is Audrey’s son, Richard (Eamon Farren), is sucking the light from the world, a vampire for glow.

Twin Peaks: The Return, 2017, still from a TV show on Showtime. Season 3, episode 10. Richard Horne (Eamon Farren).

Richard, on the run after hitting and killing a child in his giant truck, goes to “talk” to the witness who recognized him: Miriam (Sarah Jean Long), who lives in the Fat Trout Trailer Park, in a mobile bachelorette pad the color of chewed mint gum. From behind a screen door, Miriam says she’s just mailed a letter to Sheriff Truman about how Richard’s a murderer, and so if anything is done to her, they’ll know who did it. Does she not have power in her apartment? Where is the phone? Why didn’t she e-mail? Her pride in doing the right thing is as tragic as any hamartia. Richard bashes in her head, opens the gas stove, and lights a candle, and leaving the scene he phones a dirty cop at the sheriff’s department about stopping the letter. Next stop: Grandma’s, to get cash. Using his words as well as his hands, he brutalizes a crying Sylvia and a pathologically speechless Johnny, while Johnny’s only friend, a robotic teddy bear with a white-lit plastic globe for a head with a Sharpie’d cartoon face, says, “Hello Johnny. How are you?” on repeat. Like something dredged up from an abandoned student film in Lynch’s basement, this stupid and annoying bear, who is also not cute, affronts in two ways—one as a bad response to monstrosity, the other as a gesture or grace note of surreality where surrealism has long since evolved.

The Surrealists prefigured with a curious, justified horror the future extreme cleavings of man and machine. Salvador and Gala Dalí, Marcel Duchamp, and Max Ernst took turns guessing at the nature, the effect, of these transmogrifications, going so far as to summon the “thinking machines” that Alan Turing would later make plausible. Otto Neurath, a philosopher born the same year as Germaine Dulac, wrote that a “thinking machine,” like the “logic piano,” conceived by the nineteenth-century logician William Stanley Jevons to instrumentalize syllogistic methods, would allow for “syntax to be formulated and logical errors automatically avoided” so that “the machine would not even be able to write the sentence: Two times red is hard.” Hours after reading this, I had to look up the passages again, as the only thing I could remember was that two times red is hard. My iPhone has helped make remembering irrelevant over time. Nothing replaces the unpredictable. But predictive text and text-bots still can get it “wrong,” producing striking accidents of wording and making us second-guess, as if we’ve misspoken at the shrink’s office, what we meant to say.

Two times red. What would it mean? A pair of red shoes, as worn at one time or another by almost every leading lady in a Lynch piece. Laura Dern as Lula Fortune in Lynch’s Wild at Heart (1990) wears low-heeled red pumps in a rape scene, clicking her heels to disassociate. As Diane, she wears red flats and reconnects with her men. In another waiting room, at a police station in Vegas, Janey-E (Naomi Watts) wears red flats and wishes that the man she calls Dougie (MacLachlan) would come back to himself, or at least to her bed, while the audience wishes the man we know as Cooper would return to being . . . the man we know as Cooper. A sip of fresh coffee inches him nearer to awareness, so we follow his widened eyes to an American flag, whereupon an instrumental “America the Beautiful” plays faintly from the back of his mind; to a woman’s white calves in red high-heeled pumps, recalling the shoes Audrey wore to seduce him twenty-seven years ago; and to an empty power socket in the wall. Symbolism, not that it matters. He can’t connect these saturated images to the source, the power fails. Maybe the socket, which looks like an expressionless face up close, isn’t working, is unwired the way eventually all sockets will be, the new empty telephone booths. Lynch’s nostalgia is essentially for the heyday of advertising, when everyone seemed to know that red was for sex, also known as danger, whereas now red can mean seven different things, almost nothing.

At the same time, he’s grasped exactly how real the internet is, real not as reality but as dreams, realest at the moment you disconnect, awake, and wonder where you’ve been and for how long. Although now we’re all tossing and turning, unsure whether we are on- or offline at any given time, and unwilling to get out of the (metaphorical, sorry) bed. Online the reality level hovers somewhere between that of one’s own dreams (high or low, depending on what and how you dream, and where) and that of other people’s dreams (very low). Like a dream wherein everyone we know looks entirely different from life and yet is somehow recognizable, the experience of being with others online deranges the contents of our heads, making new content, but we are not required to find it meaningful or act upon whatever meanings we find there. “Internet Art” or “Post-Internet Art” has seemed, since its dubious inception, to be essentially surrealistic, picking up on the millennial habit of “being random” and taking it to new levels of senseless and ugly juxtaposition, with objects flying everywhere, text doing little to identify. Artforum’s Surrealism issue of 1966 invented the Post-Internet aesthetic before there was internet, with its cover designed by Ed Ruscha:Surrealism appears in block letters of filtered sunset orange with a massive drop shadow on a background of yellowy-green and cyan soap bubbles, fulgid like iridescent crocodile skin on a handbag.

Annette Michelson in her essay on Breton et al., published in that issue, defines what Surrealists were doing, and (to me) what Lynch is doing on Twin Peaks: The Return, a show meant to be watched with your phone turned off, if ever there was one. She writes: “The linking of dream and waking state, of the ‘communicating vessels’ [an apparatus for keeping a homogenous liquid at the same level across different and differently shaped containers, for instance the head and the body, the unconscious and the conscious, in Breton’s metaphorization of the term] pre-supposed their prior discreteness, and an opposition (among many) which can be bridged, modified, but never really abolished, whether in art or in action. A notion of the ‘noumenal’ persists. Surrealist thinking is haunted by demons and old ghosts such as a ‘transcendence,’ subjected periodically to rituals of exorcism, but never quite dispelled.”

We cannot say that Cooper will ever be fully present. We can guess, if we’re looking to be satisfied, that Miriam’s letter will eventually arrive in the right hands, the way those missing pages of Laura Palmer’s diary appeared at last. And we know that her account, partly because it is delivered after her death, and the dead don’t lie, will be believed as Laura’s dreams are believed. Ditto a message from Major Briggs, sealed for years in a gadget only his son Bobby (Dana Ashbrook) knows how to open, and written in a private language only Bobby knows how to read. I never thought I’d type the words “Bobby knows how to read,” but it’s a beautiful thing. Hastings breaks down and reveals his most deeply held secret: He has a blog, The Search for the Zone, whereon he and Ruth took “multidimensional time travel” and “dark matter” with utmost seriousness; and apparently, before she died, she met the Major. More than the wireless-enabled romances between old characters, or the inside jokes, the credence Lynch gives to this preposterous blog is a gift to all the out-there fans who turned the original Twin Peaks into a message-board sensation. Fans today on Reddit and Twitter are the people who think out loud and puzzle so Cooper doesn’t have to, the people who constitute one big and lively thinking machine.

PARTS 11 & 12

Twin Peaks: The Return, 2017, still from a TV show on Showtime. Season 3, episode 12. Sarah Palmer (Grace Zabriskie).

CORRECTION: I SAID “WE CAN GUESS” that Miriam’s letter, bearing witness to Richard Horne’s (Eamon Farren) manslaughter of a boy, would make its way to the sheriff and would be believed. But she is not dead—yet. Emerging on all fours from the woods, she is found and taken to the emergency room, where she, uninsured, requires a life-saving operation. Sheriff Frank Truman (Robert Forster) delivers the update to Ben Horne (Richard Beymer), who says he will pay for it. A bad thought arrives: He could pull a Leland Palmer and suffocate the witness at her bedside. But from now on, “we” will refrain from guessing.

Coma and exposition are two of the several tricks that David Lynch (and Mark Frost,inspired by the ’60s show Peyton Place) borrows from soap operas, where comas provide suspense without camerawork, and sending a messenger to advance the plot is cheap. The borrowing is purposeful, but unnecessary: Twin Peaks: The Return has a budget to dwarf that of the 1990–91 Twin Peaks, and it has shelved the soap we saw there, a show within a show, Invitation to Love. Replacing its communal pulse is Dr. Jacoby’s alt-reality webcast, which keeps time for us: Two or three of its hours equals one day on Twin Peaks. “It’s seven o’clock,” the show begins. “Do you know where your freedom is?” This week’s monologue gets repetitious:

And the fucks are at it again! These giant multinational corporations are filled with monstrous vermin, poisonous, vile murderers, and they eat, drink, and shit money. They buy our politicians for a song. Then these fucking politicians sing as we gag and cough, sold down the river to die. Fuck you who betray the people you were elected to help, elected to work to help to make life better for.

Once a Reaganite, Lynch is changing the tune, in keeping—uncharacteristically—with the current-affairs beat. Tricky to say where his heart lies, but his hearing aid is tuned to the outcry at a new, buzzy pitch. He’s never been this attentive to the miserabilist vagaries of dead-end life, like at the Fat Trout Trailer Park where Carl Rodd (Harry Dean Stanton) is not only the manager but also the show’s moral compass. He hands cash to a resident who, troubled with rent, has been selling his blood plasma to the hospital. (Being Canadian, I did not know this was something you could do.) “I don’t like people selling their blood to eat,” Rodd says in the show’s most affecting and tweetable line since Agent Gordon Cole (Lynch)told “those clown comics” to “fix their hearts or die.” The handsome doctor, a melodramaturgical fixture whose role is partly to cure boredom, is no more present than the handsome Agent Cooper, or maybe he too is replaced by Dr. Jacoby. “He’s beautiful,” sighs Nadine with the eyepatch, watching on her desktop from Run Silent, Run Drapes, her too-silent drape store.

Twin Peaks: The Return, 2017, still from a TV show on Showtime. Season 3, episode 12. Nadine Hurley (Wendy Robie).

Irna Phillips, the “single mother” of American soap operas, began as a daytime dramatist on the radio, with Today’s Children (1933–50), and her resounding success came because she read listeners’ letters. Robert LaGuardia wrote in Soap World (1983) of Phillips’s belief in “time and character, rather than story,” her sense that “people want to become involved with the lives of other people; that viewers follow soaps not just to see what happens next, but to experience—drink in, as it were—the characters, almost as if they lived in the viewers’ homes.” Characters on the shows she wrote for television, including As the World Turns, lived by “moment-to-moment emotions, expressed to each other in quiet scenes.”

Drink in, drink full. Time and character, in their enormous codependency, drive The Return. At last, at the start of the twelfth episode, it’s said clearly that the roads we are traveling bend back, like Laura Palmer’s arms. Limning the origin of the Blue Rose Task Force, Agent Albert Rosenfield (Miguel Ferrer) says it’s possible that “these answers” (unpreceded, often, by actual questions) “could not be reached except by an alternate path we’ve been traveling ever since.” He seems to mean “alternative,” but what he says is “alternate.” Another soap-opera trick is having a single actor play a good and an evil twin, but here the splitting occurs in a single character, too: Cooper, obviously. Laura, less so.

And Audrey? Audrey Horne (Sherilyn Fenn), so singular as a precocious teenager, makes her hotly awaited return not in the eleventh hour, where I expected her, but three-quarters through the twelfth, after a sudden jump cut. She just stands there, and presents as another of the show’s shrill, dispossessed wives: Janey-E (Naomi Watts), wife of Dougie (Kyle MacLachlan); Doris Truman (Candy Clark), who has been in a petty rage since losing her son to suicide; and Sylvia Horne (Jan D’Arcy), ex-wife of Ben and mother, or babysitter, to the disabled Johnny (Erik Rondell). Audrey’s damage is unclear, but we found out in part seven that, after an explosion at the Twin Peaks Savings and Loan, she—like Ronnette Pulaski (Phoebe Augustine) before her—landed in a coma for some unspecified time, and was visited by Cooper in one or the other of his forms.

Twin Peaks: The Return, 2017, still from a TV show on Showtime. Season 3, episode 12. Audrey Horne (Sherilyn Fenn).

Audrey tongue-thrashes her tiny husband (Clark Middleton) for not helping her find her lover, a sober farmer named Billy; and her husband calls a woman she despises, maybe his own lover. This bathetic scene goes on for like forty-five minutes (actually ten), and if Fenn is reprising any character, it’s that of Anna Nardini, Luke’s ex-girlfriend and a sort of evil twin to Lorelai, on Gilmore Girls (2003–2007), in which she also played a totally separate character. The eyebrows and the maraschino lips are there, but something is glazed and doughy in her face, like she’s just been unwrapped from plastic; and some expressiveness has been lost, maybe to the needle. Ditto in the face of MacLachlan. Maybe they’re both frozen in time, and will awake if they kiss. But he does seem evil, and mostly she seems disappointed. Her new characterization spits in the face of her old image—her teenage, dreamy, indefatigable manner and perfervid will to seduce—and of the men (on both sides of the screen) who bought into it. That or more simply: Precocity doesn’t age well.

It’s sad, in any case, but Fenn’s out-of-place performance makes you appreciate the other ones. Even Ashley Judd, playing Ben’s desired assistant, Beverly, seems to have a new, sly ripple in her flattish affect. Likewise with the amateur Chrysta Bell, who plays the FBI’s Tammy Preston with an advanced robotism, but who also displays a surprising range of expression—her facial muscles make the battle to control emotion into a cubist dilemma, or as Don DeLillo would say, her face is avant-garde —when she reacts to a dangerous promotion: She will work with Albert on the Blue Rose Task Force, a latter-day replacement for the disappeared Cooper. The former members of the force, and its forerunner, Project Blue Book, are mostly dead or missing; and William Hastings, the layman who got physically closest to the metaphysical origins of the mystery, finds his head exploded (crushed by a Woodsman, invisible to the others) when he takes the agents and Diane to the dilapidated tract at 2240 Sycamore, where he first found the portal. Any scene can be stolen by Diane, who has the advantage of being played by Laura Dern: casually, brilliantly. “There’s no backup for this,” she whispers, peering through the windshield at Hastings’s beheadedness while the agents recoil.

Twin Peaks: The Return, 2017, still from a TV show on Showtime. Season 3, episode 11. Diane Evans (Laura Dern).

Lynch exacts in every episode, more noticeably in the recent, quieter ones, these little ariosos that balloon, change shape, and deflate. At the Double R Diner, we watch with Norma Jennings (Peggy Lipton) as drama unfolds among Shelly Johnson (Mädchen Amick), her daughter Becky (Amanda Seyfried), and Bobby (Dana Ashbrook), who turns out to be Becky’s dad. Norma’s expressions shift dramatically but none are scrutable. She watches what is happening as if she were remembering it a decade from now. When Shelly’s new crime-boss boyfriend (Balthazar Getty) shows up outside the diner, appearing with his own neo-noirish lighting in his greasy leather, she seems to disappear in a flash, and, on the other side of the glass, rematerialize as her old teen self. Shelly’s glittering transition dissolves into the old Bobby’s feeling crushed as he sees her in love, and Becky instantly wises up to see him not as her father, for a second, but as a fellow broken romantic. Ashbrook and Seyfried could play those dogs with eyes the size of teacups and water wheels in the Hans Christian Andersen fairy tale, and their companionship too is doglike, hushed.

Back in the Dakotas, Jennifer Jason Leigh thrills as Chantal, the gum-smacking, laconic henchwoman to Evil Coop, opposite the equally white-trash henchman, Tim Roth’s Hutch. Near the end of episode twelve, Hutch shoots to kill a man—Warden Dwight Murphy (James Morrison)—and Chantal, driving the getaway van while watching Murphy die in front of his child (Luke Judy), licks Cheeto dust from her index finger, seeming to enjoy the orangey tang more than the sight of blood, which makes it sicker. “Next stop: Wendy’s,” says Hutch. Sky Ferreira, the very modern bombshell with an ash-in-ice-cream voice, appears at the Roadhouse at the end of episode nine as one of the locals who, with their unrecurring, relatively heterogenous appearances, make a jangling chorus. She’s a chick on methamphetamine, scratching horribly for too long at a rash in her armpit. She got fired from a burger joint, but it’s okay because she has a new job. Where? asks her friend, and she grins with the reply, At another burger joint. Ferreira has never looked worse, making thebefore-seen single mom on heroin (Hailey Benton Gates) look like a heroin addict in a Calvin Klein ad.

When I said the web was a substitute for the dream-world, I did not add that being online feels less phantasmagoric and venturesome as we professionalize, try to grow up, and play limited versions of ourselves. Compared to the nightmarish, as they say, state of the world, online feels lighter, more banal, and mere, like being stuck in an anxiety dream. Timelines—on Twitter, Instagram—are rearranged to show us what we already know to see. There is constant refreshing, getting nowhere. It’s like that, or like opening the fridge for the seventeenth time, only to find the same undesirable yogurts, every time Cooper as Dougie wanders on-screen. The eleventh hour threatens to be his last, as the Mitchum Brothers plot to end him, having lost to him in jackpots and again in a bid to collect, from his insurance company, a thirty-million-dollar payment for arson. I could yell through the screen: Wake up! You’re going to die a meme.

But one of the brothers, Bradley (James Belushi), has a dream and unlike real dreams it predicts the day. He remembers it bit by bit as the day catches up, and this for Lynch is a clever, if not new, way to build suspense. On a one-way road into the desert, in what looks like an homage to the endgame of David Fincher’s Se7en (1995), Dougie arrives with a box; should the box hold what it did in Bradley’s dream, the brothers will have to forgive Mr. Jackpots. Ding ding ding, the box holds a cherry pie. Table for three, at the Silver Mustang Casino: “Damn good,” says the other brother digging in, and “Damn good,” says Dougie, sounding more like Coop. He still might die a meme.

Twin Peaks: The Return, 2017, still from a TV show on Showtime. Season 3, episode 2. Sarah Palmer (Grace Zabriskie).

The single greatest performance of the series so far belongs to Grace Zabriskie as Sarah Palmer, unsurprising for this magnificent seventy-six-year-old actress but all the same a shake of the bones. Sarah is buying food she won’t eat and three bottles of Smirnoff at the store, when she sees a “new” kind of jerky—turkey jerky, which has existed since Natives were the only Americans—and is rushed by terror, whether of the contents or the packaging, with its primal symbols. “They” once “came” and are “coming” again, she warns with escalating terror. Maybe she means the Woodsmen, who are a kind of smoked meat incarnate. Or maybe the animals she disconsolately watched maul each other on the Discovery Channel, on a big flat-screen television, in the second hour. That shot has become, for me, the after-image of the show, but any frame of Zabriskie’s untouchable face may trigger the lonesome. Hours after the outburst, a fan whirs monotonously in a lamp-less room and she answers the door as old Sarah, scarier with her cold, hard brow, her low-burning eyes, and her corroded smile suggesting a mettle twisted to bitter ends.

I watched these two episodes on a television like that, huge in a small room, dark, the way Lynch intended. To watch a movie on your phone and “think you’ve seen a film” strikes him as nuts, and to defend phone-watching on the basis that we all have phones, and don’t all have televisions, disinterests me since necessity is not inspiring or related to the good. (Besides, the television costs less than the phone.) A character’s face in a close-up on a screen should not appear as if it were in a pocket mirror, or even in a regular mirror. The head should be significantly, alarmingly bigger than yours, and in a portrait shot, from the shoulders up, it should be the size of a clock on the wall. Convenient alternatives begin to suck. On whatever websites, avatars the size of pencil erasers ease our forgetting the obvious, like that the owners of these avatars also have homes, incomprehensible habits, old haunts on certain square miles in a subdivided country, and especially that they have other faces, shaded minutely by expressions never represented in a reaction GIF. “The face is what one cannot kill,” said Emmanuel Levinas, another thinker of otherness, the year I was born. Can representation make us stronger? On The Return, it matters that the stories are disparate, that worlds diverge and are weirdly, sparsely populated, so that the faces do not appear in a crowd.

PARTS 13, 14 & 15

Twin Peaks: The Return, 2017, still from a TV show on Showtime. Season 3, episode 13.

OVER THE LATEST HOURS of Twin Peaks: The Return, two timelines emerge, one stronger, one fainter, like lines on a pregnancy test. (If my husband is reading this: I’m not pregnant.) Old Dougie Jones (Kyle MacLachlan) comes off a bender with the Mitchum Brothers (James Belushi and Robert Knepper) and the bunny-type girls (Amy Shiels, Giselle DaMier, and Andrea Leal) and swerves into the Lucky 777 Insurance office, horrisonous music, a marching song for manic-depressive clowns, playing behind him. Anthony Sinclair (Tom Sizemore), a double agent at the company, calls his other, criminal boss, Mr. Todd, to say that the latest attempt on Dougie’s life has failed. Mr. Todd (Patrick Fischler) says Sinclair has one day to finish the job. The clock ticks.

After work, around 6 PM by the light on the stucco, the cops at the Las Vegas Police Department continue to bungle the case involving Dougie Jones and Sinclair buys cyanide from a crooked detective (John Savage). Night falls on Sonny Jim carousing around his new gym set, courtesy of the Mitchum Brothers. In the driveway there is a brand-new convertible, ditto. Theme from Tchaikovsky’s Swan Lake plays, like in I’ve wondered whether this bright, jangly story was lagging a little behind the dark one, whether Dougie does not really coexist with Agent Dale Cooper, so that eventually we find that his timeline ended when Mr. C’s began, and are left, willing or not, with that bad Coop. The car, a BMW M3 convertible in alpine white, dates to 2014 and the scene was filmed in 2016, and presumably it was just the most recent car available, but if this were happening two years before the rest of the show, or if time were zigzagging, it would not be a shocker. (Lynch’s will, at its most self-serving, makes a world where a mere vicissitude of production can seem like a gotcha, any hole in the plot suggestive of a void.)

Two years was how long a certain agent with the Bureau had to be off in Argentina before being hailed, in Twin Peaks: Fire Walk with Me (1992), as “the long-lost Phillip Jeffries.” Jeffries (David Bowie) appears in Agent Gordon Cole’s (David Lynch) dream in episode fourteen of The Return, in an alternate, black-and-white version of that scene, asking Albert (Miguel Ferrer) “who do you think that is there” instead of “who do you think this is there,” referring to Cooper, a change making the sentence more grammatical but also vicissitudinous, signaling that Cooper is further away than he seems (as that is habitually further away than this). He seems unsure whether it has really been two years. His accent belongs to a Confederate soldier who defected and joined up with Australian pirates. “We live inside a dream,” he tells Albert, who in the present, getting the replay from Gordon, says he’s beginning to remember (as if the original scene were not really a memory, but a dream he’d shared). Also in Gordon’s dream, making it a wet one, is Monica Bellucci (Monica Bellucci), who shows him his old self and repeats “ancient phrases,” among them saying: “We are like the dreamer.”

The next morning Janey-E (Naomi Watts) drives Dougie to work in the new car, and says, kissing him, “It’s like all our dreams are coming true.” (Emphasis: like.) Dougie, over coffee and pie with his would-be poisoner, foils the plot by giving him a silent, firm massage, a gesture that would be alien to Dougie and, if witting, is clever and evidences the remaining nature of Coop. After dinner at home, he eats cake and sees Sunset Boulevard on cable, and, hearing the name of that minor character for whom Gordon Cole is named, has a thought—a whole one—and crawls across the staticky carpet to stick his fork in a socket. The lights go white. Time’s up. No one’s heard from Sinclair. Chantal (Jennifer Jason Leigh) in Louboutins assassinates Mr. Todd, who was himself operating under long-distance control, presumably by Jeffries, and tells Hutch (Tim Roth) on the phone to order French fries. When we see them driving out of town it’s like 10 PM.

Twin Peaks: The Return, 2017, still from a TV show on Showtime. Season 3, episode 14. Naido and Andy (Nae and Dana Ashbrook).

So far, easy. The scenes are not all linearly shown, but the times line up in Vegas and in South Dakota, and in Twin Peaks. While Sinclair confesses his sins to Dougie and to his legitimate boss, Deputies Hawk (Michael Horse), Andy (Harry Goaz), and Bobby (Dana Ashbrook) go to the place Bobby knows from his dad’s coded message, and at 2:53 in the afternoon, the vortexing hour, each are transported to another place while Naido (Nae), the blinded visage from that other place, lies on the ground. They take her to jail to be safe, a joke if I’ve ever heard one. Next morning, Gordon calls Sheriff Frank Truman to gather up more missing pieces in the Blue Rose case, and Nadine (Wendy Robie) walks miles from home to tell her pure, good husband Ed (Everett McGill) that he’s free to be with his true love, Norma Jennings (Peggy Lipton). “How beautiful is this?” she says. Kierkegaardian, really, to find beauty nowhere but in ethics, to resolve a triangle in the symmetry of goodness returned. When Ed goes to the Double R, Norma’s busy with her franchise-happy boyfriend. “Cup of coffee,” he tells Shelly (Mädchen Amick). “And a cyanide pill,” he says to himself, while at the same time—although we saw it an hour ago—the foiled poisoner is flushing coffee for Dougie down the toilet. Ed’s line is a punchline and a pin in time.

Why are the pieces so cohering? For the same reason a magician takes care to explain, step by step, what he is going to do. When you think you know the steps, the sleight of hand becomes a greater surprise. Lynch is always reminding us that we’re supposed to be watching television, calling sudden attention to screens, glass—the gel-blue windshield of a car, the man squeakily cleaning the window outside Gordon Cole’s office, and in the very first episode, the glass box containing the dread apparition. When, in part nine, the coroner at the morgue in South Dakota, played with cool acidity by the comedian Jane Adams, relays the events of the previous two days or four episodes, Albert asks drily, “What happens in season two?” When Andy meets the Giant, the Giant unreels before his eyes a montage that might as well begin with Lynch saying, previously on Twin Peaks: The Return, and the Brechtian word for the montage would be Fabel, defined in John J. White’s book on Brecht as “a matter of a play’s parabolic potential, and of plot understood as an aggregate of significant details,” which we could sub for “perfect images” if a Godardian sense is desired.

He and Frost, also reflexively, write arcs that call to the superfan’s conspiratorial instinct. Many guessed, well before the May 21 premiere, that Laura Dern would be playing Diane Evans, Agent Cooper’s former secretary. Even I guessed that Richard Horne (Eamon Farren) would be Audrey Horne’s (Sherilyn Fenn) son, as Richard tells Mr. C when the two meet at odds; and the bad Cooper, with his black, metallic voice, his all-black leather, makes us think of Darth Vader so we know Mr. C is the dad. Excited to get what we wanted, even if all we wanted was to be right, it’s easy to be unprepared for the greater excitation, not the whodunit, not even the whydunit, but how it’s done. The delay, the sickening reverb, in that inevitable union of Ed and Norma, set to a live rendition of Otis Redding’s “These Arms of Mine” that you’d never have guessed could get more awesome. The tension in an arm-wrestling match we know Mr. C, with his supernatural right arm, and his opponent unaware of it, can’t lose, yet watch intently as if we’re paying per view. The Log Lady has been dying the whole time, and Catherine E. Coulson, her embodiment, died soon after filming her scenes, but when she phones Hawk and says her log is turning gold, goodbye, it feels unacceptable. These forced cessations of breath and urges to disbelieve, not the chintzy special effects that make Twin Peaks at times look like a student film, or worse, an art student’s film, are cinema magic. Embarrassingly, for me, these sleights inculcate “magical thinking.” Maybe, I think, I should accept the failure to return of actual, known Cooper, get used to the idea that there will only be Dougie then Mr. C, that this world doesn’t deserve such a special agent, and then—voila, he’ll come, the way my period comes when I wear white jeans.

Twin Peaks: The Return, 2017, still from a TV show on Showtime. Season 3, episode 15. Nadine (Wendy Robie).

At night time starts bending like a spoon. Sarah Palmer (Grace Zabriskie), drinking at home after her break with reality in the grocery store, watches a boxing match on loop. A boxer comes from behind, lands a punch, and “now it’s a boxing match again,” we hear like ten times. Maybe she can’t sleep and changes out of her robe and goes after midnight to the bar, as we see her do in part fourteen, or maybe it’s the next night she goes to the bar, at a more normal, evening hour. I suppose it could also be the night after next; she could be sleepwalking. At the roadhouse, in parts fourteen and fifteen, we see a master of ceremonies (J. R. Starr, the only black man in the house) announcing the acts where before there was no emcee, suggesting it’s all the same night, but if the time in Twin Peaks is the same as in Vegas it should be two nights; plus, the crowd on the floor changes almost entirely and so do the people in the booths, or they’re playing musical chairs. James (James Marshall) and his randomly English coworker, Freddie (Jake Wardle, a London kid who was heretofore known exclusively for doing different English accounts on YouTube, and here appears to be doing them all), talk about going in part fourteen and show up in part fifteen, making it seem like actually it is the same night. James says hi to his crush, Renee (Jessica Szohr), and, long and absurd story short, ends up in jail along with Naido, Deputy Chad Broxford (John Pirruccello), and a drunk who echoes Naido’s chitters, Chad’s expletives, eliciting more chitters, expletives, another loop that may as well be taped.

And Audrey is still arguing with her husband, Charlie (Clark Middleton), about whether to go to the Roadhouse. Having played out over four episodes now, in nearly contiguous scenes up to ten minutes long, the argument is occurring at about one-hundredths of the average speed of life elsewhere. Here’s where we get the wow and flutter of the show, words for its effect on your skin, words originally for the distortion produced by the wobbly of vinyl on a turntable or the dragging of tape in a cassette shell.

Audrey, beginning to be afraid: “I feel like I’m somewhere else, and somebody else […] I’m not sure who I am but I’m not me.”
Charlie: “This is Existentialism 101.” [That’s true.]
Audrey: “Oh fuck you, I’m serious.” [That’s funny.] “Who am I supposed to trust but myself? And I don’t even know who I am! So what the fuck am I supposed to do.”
Charlie: “You’re supposed to go to the Roadhouse and see if Billy is there.”
Audrey: “Is it far?”
Charlie: “Come on, Audrey, you know where it is. Are you going to stop playing games or do I have to end your story too?” [Trigger warning for anyone who unfortunately watched HBO’s Westworld.]
Audrey, terrified: “What story is that, Charlie? Is that the story of the little girl who lived down the lane? Is it?”

The 1976 adaptation of The Little Girl Who Lives Down the Lane stars a thirteen-year-old Jodie Foster as the titular kid, Rynn, and features, in a nude scene, her older sister as body double—something I bet thrilled Lynch. She has a magician boyfriend, Mario (Scott Jacoby). To her stalking neighbor, soon to become her newest poisonee, she says that her (actually dead) dad’s name (actually the name of her hamster) is Gordon. Coincidences? At the end, you’re left with the same question you had at the start: Jesus, how old is this girl?

Twin Peaks: The Return, 2017, still from a TV show on Showtime. Season 3, episode 13. Mr. C (Kyle MacLachlan).

A murder suspect under investigation by Gordon and Albert, decades ago, died of being shot in a hotel room and her body, before becoming the body, vanished. Her last words: “I’m like the blue rose.” Her shooter, in turn, hanged herself and did leave a body. The two murderesses were identical and not twins. What can this signify, asks Albert of Agent Tammy Preston (Chrysta Bell), who replies, in syllables like a mermaid’s first steps on land, that a blue rose isn’t natural and neither was the dying woman—because murder isn’t natural, or suicide? No, because the first dying, vanishing woman was, intuits Tammy: “Conjured. What’s the word. A tulpa.” A tulpa being, in different Buddhist mythologies, a body made not from bodies but from a mind; or from a hive of minds, a collective projection. And in Christian mythology, we’re all descended from one tulpa, the word made flesh, for what is a word if not a “thoughtform.”

Foucault, in The Order of Things, writes about the unity of thoughts that cannot be represented in sentences. To his mind’s eye, “the brightness is within the rose.” But a sentence with any logic is a set of “linear propositions” and in a line he “cannot avoid [the brightness] coming either before or after [the rose].” Language, at last, is “to thought and to signs what algebra is to geometry: it replaces the simultaneous comparison of parts (or magnitudes) with an order whose degrees must be traversed one after the other.” And we know how Audrey Horne used to feel about algebra. Lynch does not, however, accept these limits and is more logocentric, that is—speech takes precedence over writing, and, with the major exception of Laura’s Diary, text is left to signage and the pictorial. A reader sees the whole line at once, which is why her mind automatically fills in missing words and switches transposed ones; a listener doesn’t parse the sentence until she hears the end, unless the sentence is so cliché, idiomatic, or like her own thoughts that she can finish it, and so “blue” is anything until she hears “rose,” making the before or after irrelevant as far as meaning goes. The less predictable, undemotic, unnatural the speech, the more it begs repetition, the more unified its expression can be.

I’ve been rereading at night the stories of Laura (Riding) Jackson. One that makes me think even more about Lynch is “The Story-Pig,” wherein a totem in the shape of a porker tells stories to the guests of a hotel. A maid named Rose spends her days polishing the Story-Pig, who is silver or gold depending on the angle, and tries to make him brighter and brighter, but there is a limit to his brightness, and she sighs. At dusk she is transformed, with the help of her equally classed lover, Hans, and a pair of red slippers, into a Queen. Her subjects are “snobs by day, sentimentalists by night.”

Although the clock ticked round always to the same hour, things themselves were never the same again. [The citizens] only escaped because they were quite old, quite dead. They belonged to the Queen and had no illusions about tomorrow, when they were almost the same but never quite—except the Queen, and she only because she went not from a beginning to an end but from a beginning to a beginning.

They were dead, but they were also alive—exactly because they were dead, having beheld the true rose that is not a flower at all, and because who behold this “shall never die.”

Twin Peaks: The Return, 2017, still from a TV show on Showtime. Season 3, episode 15. Big Ed Hurley and Norma Jennings (Everett McGill and Peggy Lipton).

Who is the dreamer? You and I as the collective, singular viewer—we’re the dreamer, we’re the simplest answer. “We live inside a dream,” says Jeffries. All characters do live in boxes in a larger box. Lynch meditates transcendentally, goes deeper than meaning to find, I suppose, desires we’re left hoping are not his own. “We’re a nation of killers,” says Chantal to Hutch in the van, by way of shrugging off the day’s work. “We [white Americans] killed all the Indians, didn’t we?” Rynn to Mario, in The Little Girl Who Lives Down the Lane: “You Americans are a violent people.” Last week the actor who plays Mickey, a trailer-park resident, on The Return, was arrested in Spokane, Washington for beating his girlfriend nearly to death with a baseball bat. She’d declined to go to the store to get him a Kool-Aid before going to work at 420 Lingerie. I remembered David Foster Wallace on Charlie Rose, reprising his definition of Lynchian:

A regular domestic murder is not Lynchian. But if the man—if the police come to the scene and see the man standing over the body and the woman—let’s see, the woman’s ’50s bouffant is undisturbed and the man and the cops have this conversation about the fact that the man killed the woman because she persistently refused to buy, say, for instance, Jif peanut butter rather than Skippy, and how very, very important that is, and if the cops found themselves somehow agreeing that there were major differences between the brands and that a wife who didn’t recognize those differences was deficient in her wifely duties, that would be Lynchian—this weird—this weird confluence of very dark, surreal, violent stuff and absolute, almost Norman Rockwell, banal, American stuff.

Americans are born into a history of unbelievable violence and the cover-up is usually banal. There are Nazi youth marching with tiki torches as if the suburbs are a source of pride and humans unwanted in college towns are only mosquitoes. There are immigrants who, like Naido, are “safer in jail.” There have now been at least 910 deaths attributable to Kool-Aid. Lynch as a prophet of homeland affairs is a turn in the dark that feels wrong or impossible: He and Frost wrote the show’s four-hundred-page script in a couple months and started production when “President Trump” was still a bogeyman. But then any successful near-future prophecy is an accurate observation of the present, like a palm reader’s reading the nerves, not the lines.

PART 16

Twin Peaks: The Return, 2017, still from a TV show on Showtime. Season 3, episode 16. Diane Evans (Laura Dern).

A WORLD WHERE TWIN PEAKS is the center is horrifying and moral because there is, obviously, no God. There’s no sense of God, no shadow or presence. There’s not even a church, astounding for a town with a diner, a roadhouse, a hospital, woods, waters. There is a church in the unincorporated community of Twin Peaks, California. There are three churches of the Mormon kind by the foot of the Twin Peaks range in Utah. A work so wholly American, American as Underworld, as A Face in the Crowd, and yet not Christian exists nowhere else. But in Twin Peaks, Washington, in lieu of a creator, there is a dreamer and we don’t know who.

The first time around (1990–91) we wanted to know who killed Laura Palmer and David Lynch thought knowing would kill the show. Overruled by the network, he lost interest, left things to his cocreator, Mark Frost, and the show faltered, collapsed; or else the show couldn’t go on when the showman had left. This is Lynch’s second chance—to climb the dread heights, as John “Scottie” Ferguson does in Vertigo (1958). Cooper’s chance, too. MacLachlan’s MacLachlanaissance is in doubt, since between the dream-locked Cooper, the absent Dougie, and the evil-incarnate Mr. C, he has yet to play human, a writing choice that begins to seem like an excuse for the actor. He once played a man becoming more than that, the youthful quester, Paul Atreides, in Lynch’s ill-fated, fantastic, misunderstanding 1984 adaptation of Dune. Lynch had him imbibe what’s called “the water of life” and, rather than “drink full and descend,” ascend to being a god, whereas in the novel he’s only playing at godhood. (Imagine if Francis Ford Coppola, adapting Heart of Darkness for the cinema, had turned Kurtz into a literal deity and cast Paul Newman. The horror, etc.) Though Lynch retracted his authorship of the film after the studio made sense-destroying edits, it’s unclear that, had he been given the control he wanted, it would have been what we could honestly call great.

When I said the dreamer could be us, it was the simplest and not the best solve; I think the question should be answerable, not answered. “One does not offer an ethics to God,” says Simone de Beauvoir in her Ethics of Ambiguity (1947), and so “far from God’s absence authorizing all license, the contrary is the case, because man is abandoned on the earth, because his acts are definitive, absolute engagements.” (We can add “creative” before license, if we like.) Together, men bear “the responsibility for a world which is not the work of a strange power, but of [man] himself, where his defeats are inscribed, and his victories.”

And when the show ends, if you can believe it, this Sunday, we’ll want a sense that the dream of the show is not over, even we are not to see, for real this time, another new minute. I pray not, since Twin Peaks: The Eternal Return would be too ungodly. In the picture as it fades there should be a dreamer who is like us, made in our image as gods always are, in my god-averse view, but not us. A Godardian “perfect image,” like I said. Afterimage, maybe. Face without an “I.”

Cooper, a dreamer, cannot be the dreamer. An early episode in the original Twin Peaks was called “Cooper’s Dreams,” not “Cooper’s Dream” (or even “Cooper Dreams”). In episode sixteen of The Return, having put a fork in the socket and in Dougie, the hero awakes from both his medically induced coma and his once-interminable limbo. “You are awake,” says Phillip Gerard (Al Strobel), aka The Man from Another Place. “One hundred per cent,” says Cooper. Dale Cooper. Special Agent Dale Cooper. “Finally,” says Gerard.

Twin Peaks: The Return, 2017, still from a TV show on Showtime. Season 3, episode 16. Phillip Gerard (Al Strobel).

What proceeds is as pure and fun an action sequence as any in a Bond movie (and I’ve seen every Bond movie), set—finally!—to the Twin Peaks theme. He’s starving. He’s talking, all determination and cheer. He borrows a gun from his boss (he knows the exact make and model, which says he’s been watching, as in sleep paralysis, from inside Dougie) and tells the Mitchum Brothers to get the private jet ready. “What about the FBI?” says Bushnell Mullins (Don Murray), because the FBI is looking for Mr. Jones. Cooper turns, a familiar turn. “I am the FBI.” He’s suave, driving the white Beemer, another man’s wife, Janey-E (Naomi Watts), looking at him with lust and adoration. Leaving wife and kid tearful at the casino, he promises that “Dougie… I will be back.” (It’ll be a figure named Dougie but, for Janey-E’s sake, more like Cooper, made with a strand of his hair and a “seed” of some kind, conjured by Gerard.)

As for the other one, the bad one, he doesn’t dream ever, permitting the notion that what we see is his dream—but no, Mr. C cannot be the dreamer. Since minute one he’s been too in control. Dreams don’t tend to be plotted, lack beginnings or endings; they begin in darkness and they’re over when you stop remembering, or wake. He does create—tulpas, like Dougie. He decreates his son, duh, Richard Horne (Eamon Farr), electrocuting him on a rock, and the son’s disappearance indicates he too was/is a tulpa, or half-tulpa. The one man he can’t control is Phillip Jeffries, who reappears at the old convenience store in voice only, and it would be apt for David Bowie to play the dreamer, to have, perhaps, an alter ego named Judy, and therefore to hold the answers two questions—who’s Judy and who’s the dreamer — in one hand. However, if Judy is to be like Dorothy in Wizard of Oz, played by Judy Garland, she should have once been a girl.

Kim Novak is Judy Barton in Vertigo, and Judy, mistress to the rich Mr. Elster, goes blonde and waspy to impersonate and frame as a suicide his wife, Madeleine. An early episode of the original Twin Peaks has Laura’s cousin, named Maddy or Madeleine after Novak, played like Laura by Sheryl Lee, put on a blonde wig to play the dead girl’s ghost. Syllogistically, casting aside, this means Judy is Madeleine and Madeleine is not Laura. Some fans ignore this and think Judy is Laura, pointing to the shot of a monkey saying “Judy,” followed by a shot of dead Laura, in Twin Peaks: Fire Walk with Me (1992). But Judy has a sister, says Jeffries in the same film, and “part of her” is there in Argentina. Laura does not have a sister, far as we know. (Can a tulpa be considered a sister?)

Twin Peaks: The Return, 2017, still from a TV show on Showtime. Season 3, episode 16. Audrey Horne (Sherilyn Fenn).

Audrey (Sherilyn Fenn) had a half-sister, Donna Hayward, played on Twin Peaks by Lara Flynn Boyle and unreturned here. Norma (Peggy Lipton) had a sister who was played by Annie (Heather Graham) and ditto. I suppose when Cooper asked how’s Annie the answer could have been “chilling in Buenos Aires” but it’s impossible to think of Norma as a Judy. Joan Chen, writing in character as Josie Packard to David Lynch, asking, in vain, to be onThe Return, said that she often thinks of her “twin sister, Judy.” A writer on Fire Walk with Me said ages ago that Judy was, at one point, meant to be Josie’s twin, and at least one fan is convinced that Judy is Josie, while another on the same fansite is convinced, via the Bible and numerology, that Judy is Naido (Nae Yuuki). On the Twin PeaksReddit I read that Judy is both Josie’s sis and Naido, but since Nae is very apparently Japanese and Chen is very apparently Chinese, this development would be racist, blind, and dumb. Diane (Laura Dern), we found out in part fourteen, is half-sisters with none other than Janey-E, their lives another soap-operatic double aria in this devil’s puzzle of a magnificent script.

But the Diane we have seen is not the Diane we never knew. She’s already been a double agent, working with the task force on the Blue Rose case and simultaneously texting info to Mr. C, but the latest text reveals she’s a double, a tulpa. Mr. C texts “ALL” preceded by a smiling emoticon, and the smile triggers her, as in literally triggers, weaponizes. Twenty-five years ago, on the night she doesn’t talk about, she tells Gordon, with Albert and Tammy listening, Cooper showed up at her house. He kissed her, and it didn’t feel like a kiss. He smiled, horribly. He raped her. Dern is incredible: What could be truer than the dreamy, teenage way she says “he kissed me” and then, breathiness curling and solidifying into disgust with the processive control of a ballet dancer’s developpé, says “something went wrong.”

Cooper was, then, definitively, bad at the time Richard was conceived with Audrey, meaning either that Audrey was a tulpa and tulpas can reproduce, which is unlikely but so are a lot of things before they occur; or that Audrey was raped and the dissociation a rape produces came to stick. Finally at the roadhouse, at the end of this sixteenth hour, she dances the dance we remember and we’re ensorcelled into grinning at the sight. But just when she seems like herself, she is interrupted by yet another barfight over someone’s wife and stops, runs to Charlie, screams get me out of here and poof, appears elsewhere, in a white room, makeupless in a mirror, as in a psych ward. I have already expressed my total disdain for rape —let alone rape by a partner, lover, friend, or acquaintance, a crime about as rare as petty theft—as a plot device granting a male protagonist power over the rest of a victim’s life and I refuse to say more about it as a reason for a girl to go mad.

Twin Peaks: The Return, 2017, still from a TV show on Showtime. Season 3, episode 16. Agent Dale Cooper (Kyle MacLachlan).

The matrilineal nature of madness, more accurate to my paradigm, is supposed in Vertigoand echoed in Twin Peaks. Other fans, in a theory I enjoy, say that the girl asleep when the Woodsmen come, into whose mouth the tumescent insect crawls, must be the dreamer; that is to say, some percentage of her never woke up. More than any of the other female characters, the girl looks like Mädchen Amick, enough so to have been her mother, making Becky (Amanda Seyfried) her granddaughter and analogous to the character of Madeleine Elster, with the insane, suiciding grandmother of lore, in Vertigo. But that’s perhaps my superficial reading and the fans who think the dreamer is Sarah Palmer (Grace Zabriskie), the desolated would-be matriarch who alone is the right age to be that girl as a woman if she’s still alive, are onto something more. She’s been nuts as long as we’ve known her. She’s only moreso. She has a sister, one we’ve never seen: Beth Ferguson, mother of Maddy, though again if we are following the plot of Vertigo this would make Maddy the Judy. Maybe I just want Sarah to be the dreamer because she is the character in Twin Peaks I most hope is somehow immortal.

Zabriskie had the greatest scene of the show so far, or so I said, in part twelve; she had a greater one in part fourteen, when Sarah goes drinking alone at an unfamiliar dive bar. Harassed by a man in a TRUCK YOU T-shirt (where’s Richard with Billy’s truck when you need him?) who accuses her of “looking like one of them bulldykes” (he may be excused for not knowing what a bulldyke looks like, there being a total of no lesbians in Twin Peaks), she takes on an attitudinal freeze and hiss, becoming precisely as touchable as nitrous oxide. He says he’ll eat her cunt. She says she’ll eat him. Removing her face like a paper moon from a collage of the galaxy, she emits the voice of a Woodswoman, saying do you really want to fuck with me, and a hand appears, and something bites, so that the next thing anyone sees he’s dead on the floor with a missing jugular. A half-second. A return to her human form. Then a scream which, in Zabriskie’s throat, has wit. I laughed the first, second, third time I watched it. The bar owner approaches her with suspicion and she plays helpless, stricken, then drops her voice to a mere chill and says: “Yeah. It’s a mystery.” Her alloy of the deadpan and sangfroid supercedes even that of Diane, and I wonder whether tulpas can have this much self-possession, congenitally; no other tulpa has gone off her head of her own volition.

Twin Peaks: The Return, 2017, still from a TV show on Showtime. Season 3, episode 14. Sarah Palmer (Grace Zabriskie).

Few other options are left for the dreamer’s identity. Gordon Cole (David Lynch), whose name is the last thing Cooper-as-Dougie hears, the final trigger, cannot be him either. You wouldn’t say to the dreamer, as Monica Bellucci does to Gordon Cole, that “we are like the dreamer.” If we’re not the dreamer and the characters aren’t like us, who are they like? Do we want to know what we’re like? Maybe it’s someone we’ve never seen. The original, human Diane, the invisible presence the old Cooper was always addressing, perhaps. Or someone we mysteriously can’t see, on the verge of disappearing, an old authority figure in the hospital, sick, someone people are always asking to see and can’t—the actor unavailable, retired. Sheriff Harry S. Truman, that is. Horrible to think we’re just in Truman’s show!

Go back to Vertigo, Lynch’s favorite. I had forgotten whether it ended with a fate—and it did, a punishment for interfering with fate. But the plot is set into motion by cynical people, not “forces.” There is no “strange power” at work. People on The Return die of common causes, like being shot, but not for very good reasons: Chantal (Jennifer Jason Leigh) and Hutch are riddled to bits by, of all people, an accountant in an act of mutual road rage. Steven (Caleb Landry Jones), in the fourteenth hour, was heard to die by his own handgun, startled, like Judy Barton atop the belltower, erroneously at the approach of a stranger. People also die in what are deemed paranormal or “not natural” ways, and these autopsy-defying deaths seem yet less “senseless,” less amoral than the picayune, indubitable ones. Morality, said de Beauvoir after Kierkegaard, is no more relevant than language is to nature, and is perhaps supranatural; it’s easy to make the slip to supernatural, then to sense good and evil as something no longer above but beyond us, something out there. Lynch is a true believer that some things can’t be explained. Yet Scottie, the detective in Vertigo, believed in the inexplicable too for a time, and was institutionalized, and when he solved the case and beat his agoraphobia, almost in one breath, it was because he saw, like Paul in Dune, that “fear is the mind-killer.” I suspect the best reason not to say who killed Laura was that people already knew, only they were afraid to think it.

Twin Peaks: The Return, 2017, still from a TV show on Showtime. Season 3, episode 18. Carrie Page (Sheryl Lee).

THE FINALE: EPISODES 17 & 18
I.
INTERVIEWER:Is Laura Palmer really dead?
DAVID LYNCH:Ummm. [A thirteen-second pause.] I’m pretty sure.
—Lynch on CBC Radio, 1990

LAURA WAS DEAD, but her problems kept hanging around. It was like they hadn’t buried her deep enough! That is to quote from her best friend’s scream by the grave in the Twin Peaks, Washington cemetery where her body, unwrapped from plastic, had been inhumed six days earlier in 1989. One problem was the body itself, the body of a girl being motive, means, opportunity all at once. Another was the family, where odds are made. As for the rest, they were the problems of the human heart in conflict with itself, the only thing worth writing about, and that is to quote William Faulkner accepting the Nobel Prize in 1950.

The men who built Twin Peaks were born about seven years apart into nuclear families. They were eldest children, each with a younger brother and a younger sister, with fathers. David Lynch, raised on tree-lined streets across the Midwest, came to understand cinema as he did small towns, places where, because the horizontal is circumscribed, plots tend to spiral. “Everything, anything that is a thing, comes up from the deepest place,” he says in his guide to transcendental meditation, Catching the Big Fish: Meditation, Consciousness, and Creativity (2006). The mind reels. Meanwhile, Mark Frost, a child of Brooklyn and Los Angeles, learned to write television on the Inner City, U.S.A. drama Hill Street Blues. He is likelier to pair “the deep” with “state,” and to conceive the truth as being “out there.” When the two met it was to write a movie about the death and afterlife of Marilyn Monroe, called Venus Descending, which the studio nixed upon hearing who, in this adaptation, killed her: Senator Robert “Bobby” Kennedy. A bit close to home.

Lynch and Frost decided to write a network television show, and transposed the outline ofVenus Descending from Washington, DC to Washington State, the Hollywood Roosevelt to the Roadhouse. Lynch redrew the goddess as Laura Palmer, a prom queen and after-school prostitute who was also, he’d later say, “a sideways self-portrait.” Frost modeled her fate after the unsolved murder, eighty years earlier, of Hazel Irene Drew in the woods around Taborton, New York, where as a child he summered. Here too a killer did not act alone: Lynch devised a spirit named BOB (pronounced “Bob”) who would possess Laura’s father, Leland, to do his worst, complicating the trope of a man just doing what he’s told. “Maybe that’s all Bob is,” wrote Frost for a government man to say. “The evil that men do.” By the second season, the cocreators had received the encoded message that a senator killing a movie star for political reasons was, for the same reasons, inconceivable on screen; a man strangling to death his own daughter upon finding she’d been raped by someone other than himself (for once) was not inconceivable.

Nights before her murder, Laura dreams. She tosses, turns—and turns to see an older girl, blonde, with a bloody mouth, wearing a white dress like a child at First Communion. Annie (Heather Graham) will not be seen in daytime until after Special Agent Dale Cooper (Kyle MacLachlan), on his first trip to Twin Peaks, has “solved” said murder, and she will not be seen looking like this until the night Windom Earle (Kenneth Welsh), a Federal Bureau apostate, kidnaps her and takes her to the Black Lodge. At the moment, however, she apparently can’t find a piece of paper, and tells Laura to write the following in her diary: “My name is Annie. The Good Dale is in the Lodge, and he can’t leave.”

This is useless information. “It’s like somebody in 1920 saying ‘Lee Harvey Oswald’ or something, and then later you see it all,” Lynch told the writer Chris Rodley for the bookLynch on Lynch (1997). John F. Kennedy is shot and dies forty-three years later. Laura Palmer is murdered forty-three years after the birth, in 1946, of David Lynch. No coincidence that prescience and nostalgia take equally as long to develop. Nothing much to see. Unless we are talking not about hindsight but anamorphosis: a technique for making a prima facie distorted, indistinct picture become legible when viewed from a specific angle, or a certain, warped mirror.

The fateful day is one where dawn comes at the end. In Greek myths, the ones I remember, a protagonist crosses the gods. She believes that she is taking fate into her own hands, that she can reverse or avert the dread event, only to make herself answerable for the very same outcome—and then it is fate. Antigone, sentenced to be buried alive, hangs herself in the tomb before the king’s men, on new orders, arrive to free her. Daphne is fleeing Apollo when she falls into a river and cries to the gods, who save her by turning her into a laurel tree, rooted forever, and watch as Apollo cuts off her branches for a wreath. Phaedra’s nurse cures her deadly lovesickness with a revelation that causes her suicide. And that is to say nothing of the men who “accidentally” kill their fathers: Perseus, Theseus, Oedipus.

Twin Peaks: The Return, 2017, still from a TV show on Showtime. Season 3, episode 17. Laura Palmer and Agent Dale Cooper (Sheryl Lee and Kyle MacLachlan).

A perfect myth is the one where Eurydice dies. Her husband, Orpheus, mourns her in songs so moving that the gods develop sympathy and permit him to retrieve her from the underworld, on one condition: He can’t look at her until they reach the light. Eurydice follows closely, but she is still behind him, in darkness, when he sees the sun and turns around smiling. My favorite reading of the denouement was done by Godard in his eulogy for Hitchcock. “The cinema is Eurydice,” said Godard.

Eurydice says to Orpheus: “Don’t look back.” And Orpheus turns around. Orpheus is the literature that kills Eurydice. And the rest of his life, he makes money by publishing a book on the death of Eurydice.

The second-to-last hour of The Return ends with Cooper in the woods on the night of February 23, 1989. Laura and James fought there. He watches them fighting now. Once Laura looked past James and screamed at what appeared to be nothing. Now when she looks, we see Cooper. Cooper thinks she sees him, and ducks. (It’s unclear that she does, and funny, when you pause on his modest face, to think of him causing a scream.) Later she returns to the woods and this time, seeing the man in a suit, uses her words. She wonders whether she knows him. “We’re going home,” he says, and takes her hand.

A portal is open. We glimpse a Twin Peaks where Laura does not, on February 24, 1989, die. The mill-owner’s husband goes out fishing, and does not find a body. The mistress does her makeup and hums a soft, disquieting tune. If everything were different, what would change? Tonight in a world where her daughter is or is not dead, the woman we know as Sarah Palmer (Grace Zabriskie) is drunk and alone, raging at the portrait of Laura, trying to scratch out Laura’s face.

In Don DeLillo’s Libra (1985), a novel about who killed John F. Kennedy, a line goes: “Something in his heart longed for this murder, even though he knew it was a sin.”

Laura follows Cooper out of the woods. He turns to look. She smiles, unsure. There is a sound of wind rising. He turns again. The rising wind. Again. A pause, an insectile scratching, and he turns to look a fourth time. Bad news.

Twin Peaks: The Return, 2017, still from a TV show on Showtime. Season 3, episode 18.

II.
“Moving forward in time, it is important that we learn to distinguish between mysteries and secrets.”
—Major Garland Briggs in The Secret History of Twin Peaks, 2016

THERE IS APPARENTLY such a thing as an “extreme negative force,” says Lynch as Chief Gordon Cole to his right-hand man, Albert (Miguel Ferrer), and his novitiate, Tammy (Chrysta Bell), at the top of The Return’s two-part finale. Cole says that “in olden times” this “entity” had a name, about which there’s been some confusion. Lynch enunciates two syllables, like he’s learning pinyin: Zhǎo + Dēi. Closed captioning has this as Jow-Day, which sounds like an Old Celtic warning. Frost, going off script, has suggested that the entity is a Sumerian demon-goddess, a counterpart to Ba’al, called Joudy. (No such shakti appears in extant myths of Sumer.) Whatever her provenance, her name over the ages, as in a game of Chinese whispers, became Judy. Darkness, gentrified.

Judy was name-dropped at the offices of the Bureau by Phillip Jeffries (David Bowie), returning from Buenos Aires, in 1987. Her nature or presence was discovered by Major Garland Briggs (Don S. Davis) at some point before he disappeared in the early 1990s. The bedevilled Jeffries, who appeared only in Fire Walk with Me, and the divining Briggs, who appeared only in Twin Peaks (1990–91), never met. They continue to polarize the co-creation. Lynch told Variety that what happened in Fire Walk with Me, a Lynch minus Frost production, would be “very important” to The Return. Frost promoted his book, styled as a dossier on the paranormal kept by Briggs, The Secret History of Twin Peaks(2016). “I haven’t read it,” said Lynch, when asked to comment on the 368-page tome. Forty minutes into The Return we find the Major dead, his head severed as if it contained his mind, as if Lynch had personally executed him for knowing too much.

Briggs may have been named Garland as in Judy Garland, who appeared as Dorothy in The Wizard of Oz (1939), a film beloved by Lynch, a few years before he was born. But nomen is not necessarily omen. Lynch uses, across his ouevre, the same names for wildly unlike characters: Betty Briggs and Betty Elms. Frank Booth and Frank Truman. Dorothy Vallens and Dorothy, just Dorothy. Bobby Peru and Bobby Briggs. The denotive power makes meanings, two by two, cancel out. He likes it, too, when characters share names with his favorite people, or vice versa: Laura Palmer takes after Otto Preminger’s Laura (1944), but her persona also connotes Laura Dern. Dern is Lula Fortune in a Lynch film, and Lula is the name of Lynch’s latest daughter, four years old. A universe feels familial. Harry, brother of Frank, is the sheriff in a coma, and Harry was Harry Dean Stanton.

Stanton died two weeks after the finale aired, and I rewatched Harry Dean Stanton: Partly Fiction, the 2012 documentary in which he plays guitar, muses on the void, tries to avoid talking about his “career.” Lynch comes over and reads him some questions from a printout.

LYNCH
Have you ever been married?
STANTON
No. But I was really close once…
LYNCH
(grinning)
The next question was, how did you meet your wife?
Lynch, like Frost as Cyril Pons, is enjoying his little cameo as a reporter. Where the screenwriter lent indulgence to the hack type, the director treats the business as a not-bad joke.
LYNCH
How would you describe yourself?
STANTON
As nothing. There is no self.

Lynch and Stanton both laugh.

I searched the web for “David Lynch” + “the self.” What appeared was a book on a famous poet, titled Yeats: The Poetics of The Self, by David Lynch. The sole review on Goodreads was ecstatic:

I didn’t know this existed until I googled “Lynch Yeats” a moment ago. After seeing a clear connection between Yeats’s “The Second Coming” and imagery and events in Twin Peaks: The Return, I became convinced that Lynch had read Yeats, but not that he’d written an entire monograph about him! I immediately ordered it and hope that it sheds more light on this fascinating and unexpected connection.

On the internet the past doesn’t die, and “medium” seems a double entendre. Connections constantly disturb. I said in an earlier recap that social media and dreams are on the same plane of reality, and that in Twin Peaks and moreso in The Return, telecommunications and networks are incorporated into a new, almost dreamless surrealism. Lynch and Frost attract message-board freaks who, never getting enough sleep, see clues in lieu of symbols and take inexplicability as a challenge. The number-one search engine suggests that The Poetics of The Self was authored by the famously atheoretical artist, not the minor, dead academic who actually wrote it. This was all very funny until I found myself wondering whether the Yeatsian notion of “negative capability” applies to the work of David Lynch, and only later remembered that the notion is actually Keatsian.

Superstition makes you do crazy things, says Robert Burton in his life’s work, The Anatomy of Melancholy (1621). The Major to Windom Earle, under the influence of truth serum, surrenders the key to the Black Lodge: “There is a time, when Jupiter and Saturn meet, they will receive you.” He must mean the planetary event known as the Great Conjunction, scheduled to occur every eighteen to twenty-one years: the length of a trend cycle, or the time it takes a child to reach maturity. Great Conjunctions are historically mystified. Earle goes around singing: “When Jupiter and Saturn meet, oh what a crop of mummy wheat!” Which is, as it happens, a line from a Yeats poem.

Twin Peaks: The Return, 2017, still from a TV show on Showtime. Season 3, episode 17. Agent Cooper, Diane Evans, and FBI Deputy Director Gordon Cole (Kyle MacLachlan, Laura Dern, and David Lynch).

III.
“Television is the force of no-history, and it holds the archives of the history of no-history. … No good has come of it.”
— George S. Trow, Within the Context of No-Context (1981)

A TRIPLE CONJUNCTION of Jupiter and Saturn occurred in Libra in 1981. David Lynch, a founding member of The Platters, died and was remembered for singing tenor on “Only You” (1955). David Lynch, the director of Eraserhead (1977), was nominated for his first Academy Award, for The Elephant Man (1980). Seven hours before the ceremony was to begin at the Dorothy Chandler Pavilion in Los Angeles, a twenty-five-year-old man seeking the attention of a nineteen-year-old actress, who would turn out to be a lesbian, shot Ronald Reagan outside a Northwest Washington hotel. The ceremony was postponed for twenty-four hours, and a television set was procured for Reagan’s bedside. He watched the stars watch him give a competent performance as the President: “Film reveals that people everywhere share common dreams and emotions,” said Reagan to the Academy in a message taped two weeks earlier, when he had never been shot. The “theme” of the ceremony was that “film is forever.” Reagan said, “I’ve been trapped in some film forever myself.”

Lynch had voted for Reagan on the grounds of that smile and his “cowboy image.” He believed in an implanted memory of America. Daily for seven years he went to Bob’s Big Boy Diner on Riverside Drive, where he ordered a chocolate milkshake in a silver goblet and wrote ideas on white napkins, a lone communion. The ideas that came quickest were disturbing because he was easily disturbed: One day a man came into the diner and though nothing he did or said was memorable, he gave the director a feeling and the feeling gave us Frank Booth, the most terrific human monster, in Blue Velvet (1986).

His work from the beginning had the antagonism to shared reality of evangelical tracts. He used an unspoken Bible verse as “a key to unlock” the meaning of Eraserhead (1977). He devotes much screen time in The Elephant Man (1980) to the church that Merrick (John Hurt) builds in miniature, working on it daily until the night he says, “it’s finished,” and dies. In Blue Velvet, Sandy (Laura Dern) and Jeffrey (Kyle MacLachlan) sit parked across from a church as she, backtracked by organs, talks about love and the coming robins. Dern told a New York Times reporter that “David is as much a believer in the robins as in Frank Booth.” The robin who appears at the end of the film is fake, a taxidermied marionette, but then so was Reagan.

“You don’t literally believe in angels,” said the interviewer, Mark Cousins, to Lynch on Scene by Scene. Lynch said he did. “No,” said Cousins. “Do you?” “Yeah,” said Lynch. Even the lawless Wild at Heart (1990) had Sailor (Nicholas Cage) and Lula (Dern) survive hellfires in a pilgrimage to reach the City of Angels, where an embrace reiterates that perfect love casts out fear. Yet nothing could prepare the unbeliever for the overwhelming theodicy of Fire Walk with Me. Heaven, in this reactive prequel, is promised to Laura (Sheryl Lee) and to her friend Ronette (Phoebe Augustine). Laura thinks the angels are leaving her, while the cinematographer, Roy Garcia, knows better and shoots from a high, diametric corner, the angel’s-eye view. (Garcia also, albeit in a deleted scene, provides a clear shot of the church in Twin Peaks, never before seen and since abandoned.) Dimly, we see her death as a choosing. She slips a significant jade ring on her finger, securing her place as the bride of someone like Christ, and goes to the Red Room to meet her angel, who is wearing an angel costume. Luigi Cherubini plays us out.

Any believability, or deceptive coherence, in Fire Walk with Me may be credited to the costume and production designer, Patricia Norris, who had done all Lynch’s films and theTwin Peaks pilot; and to the editor, Mary Sweeney, who had assisted Duwayne Dunham onBlue Velvet, Wild at Heart, and Twin Peaks before taking over for one sublime episode of the show’s second season, “Lonely Souls,” directed by Lynch. Sweeney became his editor for the next decade, his live-in partner for several years, and, for one month in 2006, his third wife. “I never know where the point is when I’ve entered into [his] world,” she told an interviewer in 2007. “It is usually an unremarkable passage, but all of a sudden I just understand.” Audiences were less understanding, and tended to see Fire Walk with Me as a morbid betrayal, a tasteless, sad exploitation, or an interesting mess. Twenty-five years later, we see it all. Sweeney established a narrative structure that now seems definitively Lynch: A mystery is met with dissolution. Between two acts, the stage is rotated, the players and the story change.

Lynch has said that the few years after Fire Walk with Me bombed were the darkest in his life. He no longer went to Bob’s Big Boy, having one day gone into the dumpster and discovered what was really in the milkshakes: “Every ingredient ended in -zine or -ate. There was nothing natural anywhere near that carton.” Artifice, empty trash. No disillusionment like that of a man who believes, until after age forty, that there is milk in the milkshakes. When he returned to theaters with Lost Highway (1997), a schitzy, neo-noirish thriller, the change was clear. There would be nothing further for angels to do in a Lynch film.

The trouble in Lost Highway starts with videotapes sent anonymously to the home of Fred (Bill Pullman) and Renee (Patricia Arquette), filmed nightly in the bedroom where they sleep off desires, unfulfilled. Fred appears on the last of the tapes to murder Renee. On death row, he undergoes either a psychotic break or metempsychosis and emerges from his cell as Pete (Balthazar Getty), a mechanic whose crimes are minor and who is set free to live with his parents. Pete stays out of trouble until the day he meets a porn star named Alice (Arquette), who looks like Renee in a blonde wig or is Renee through a looking glass. Arquette’s interpretation: “It’s about a man trying to recreate a relationship with the woman he loves so that it ends up better.” (…Spoiler alert.) Fred says, about the business of video: “I like to remember things the way I remember them. Not necessarily how they happened.” He speaks for the auteur, who appeared to regret making his process seem easy, a matter of drinking too much coffee, getting a bad night’s sleep, and recording his dreams. Lynch told the Village Voice that was not “about dreams” at all.

Remembering one’s self is a difficulty. His structural opus Mulholland Drive, starring Naomi Watts and Laura Elena Harring, is an extraordinary conflict of memories, told in twisted ternary form. Each woman’s version of the story starts with the other woman in the backseat of a limousine, saying the line: “What are we doing? We don’t stop here.” These are the first and third acts, separated by a second where the stories line up and it’s love, the two falling silent—of course, at a nightclub called Silencio. Rebekah Del Rio sings Roy Orbison’s “Crying” in Spanish, a language the blonde does not understand and the brunette in a blonde wig does, and the two, holding hands, perform an accompaniment in tears. “Crying often takes the place of speech,” says Dennis Lim in his great book on Lynch. “A language of the body, it insists that words are not enough.” The lovers exaggerate what they do not have to say, that the beginning is the end. Hereafter they will remember things differently.

Betty’s story stars herself as a natural, promising actress, uncorrupted as a Canadian can be. She finds a perfect object for a coup de foudre: a woman who has lost her memory and her identification, both in a limousine accident on Mulholland Drive, and who names herself Rita, after Hayworth. Betty connotes Grable, Hayworth’s rival. She watches auditions forThe Sylvia North Story and knows she could outdo Camilla Rhodes (Melissa George, who like Watts is blonde and Australian), but when the director, Adam Kesher (Justin Theroux), turns by chance to see her and is enraptured, she flees like it’s midnight. Adam sighs and pretends to choose Camilla: “This is the girl,” he tells the shadowy producers, who likewise pretend. Betty, a victim in her own narrative, is hindered by a conspiratorial system and driven by pure, requited, yet ultimately self-destructive love. She finds a mysterious blue key and gives it to Rita. She starts losing the plot.

In Rita’s story she is Camilla, and Camilla (like Harring, like Del Rio) is a Mexican-American femme fatale. No accidents here: She is chosen by an older director to be Sylvia North in the fateful biopic, and by the young one, Adam, to star in a cult film and be his girlfriend. Betty, barely a rival, becomes “a friend” in the euphemistic parlance of backstage lesbianism, and when she gets out of the limo to join Adam and Camilla at a dinner, she plays third wheel. Betty is not even Betty. She’s Diane in the daytime in a wifebeater, the dark roots showing in her hair, strung out and desperate, getting her nom de guerre off a waitress’s nametag. This story ends with Diane alone, dying—a probable suicide. Rita’s fairy-tale ending (“Camilla and I… are going to be…,” says Adam, but then the scene falls apart) is no match for a Carmenesque gesture. But because her story is an on-the-record version of events, a tale told anecdotally, less as narrative and not as romance, it is seen as “realer” or “truer.” Most reviewers of Mulholland Drive think the mystery was in fact a dream, the love story a delusion, on the part of Diane, and take Rita’s real name to be Camilla.

But there is no Camilla. “The girl is still missing,” say the producers. “Camilla is still missing,” says Don Antonio, the Pantalone, in Renoir’s The Golden Coach (1953), a romantic comedy about the Columbine in a commedia dell’arte troupe, played by Camilla (Anna Magnani), and her three simultaneous lovers. Unhappy after losing all three, she wants to quit acting. The Pantalone, played by a man named Don Antonio says she might as well quit living:

Your only way to find happiness is on any stage … during those two little hours when you become another person, your true self.

Or, in another translation of the speech, said by Truffaut to be Renoir’s artistic statement:

You will find your happiness only on stage each night for the two hours in which you ply your craft as an actress, that is, when you forget yourself. Through the characters that you will incarnate, you will perhaps find the real Camilla.

In Mulholland Drive, Camilla is metonymic with “the girl,” the girl metonymic with the part. Whoever is Camilla is the it-girl, the director’s girlfriend, the girl of the hour, and anyone could be her in theory, only one at a time. When the two women go to the address listed under Diane Selwyn, Betty is confident it will turn out to be Rita’s place. They arrive to find that a neighbor and Diane have swapped apartments, and to see a corpse on the bed, also changeable, brunette and then blonde. The agonistic she-said she-said is presented in a vertiginous feat of editing, as quick and sure-handed as the riffle shuffle of a blackjack dealer.

Lynch decided to self-edit his next film. He authorized (and, at times, appeared to co-author) an unknown director’s documentary, Lynch: One (2007), in which he says at one point that creativity flows best amid personal happiness and at another point that he is so depressed he doesn’t know what he’s doing. In the late fall of 2016, the executor of William Faulkner’s estate told the Los Angeles Times that he was looking for someone to make a “David Lynch-style movie” of a Faulkner story, about three deteriorating generations of a Nebraskan family in a sick, lightless Hollywood, “Golden Land” (1935). Unfortunately, this is a fine description of Inland Empire (2006), released two weeks later.

I was willing to watch Inland Empire once. What I remember: shrieking, a danse macabre, a tale told in hideous Polish, conflations of the torturous and the pornographic, colors as if palm oil sludge had been smeared on the optical flat, and altogether a psychoactive morass. Despite starring the extraordinary Dern as a dithery, fey actress-or-whore, the narrative was clearly, too clearly, unreeled from the mind of a man who was having trouble thinking. I have also seen it described—in a four-star review—as “the Atlas Shrugged of narrative avant-garde films.” The penultimate scene is a farce of literal homelessness on the Hollywood strip.

Parts seventeen and eighteen of the “eighteen-part limited series” that is Twin Peaks: The Return are stories about going home again. (A return to form matches content, thanks to superb editing by Duwayne Dunham.) The last hour begins with a new model Cooper, a tulpa to replace and improve upon Dougie, arriving chez Jones. “Dougie!” says Janey-E (Naomi Watts). “Dad!” says Sonny Jim (Pierce Gagnon). “Home,” says Dougie. The word triggers a near-verbatim replay of the fatal scene: Cooper in the woods, turning to look at Laura. Laura’s scream. There is one second’s difference, a shot moving in from over his shoulder, spliced into the long moment after she vanishes, before we see his eyes. This is all it takes to put us at the scene.

Twin Peaks: The Return, 2017, still from a TV show on Showtime. Season 3, episode 18. Janey-E, Dougie, and Sonny Jim (Naomi Watts, Kyle MacLachlan, and Pierce Gagnon).

IV.
“Dark, menacing themes are like bass notes; they prepare us for the high beautiful strings.”
—Lynch (again) on CBC Radio, 1990

FAULKNER’S HOLLYWOOD COLONIZES MY MIND. In “Golden Land,” a story he wrote while under contract with MGM in the 1930s, a Hollywood agent wakes up to tabloid stories about a sort of proto-”sex tape” starring his twenty-year-old daughter, a prodigal and aspiring starlet. Ashamed, he wants to grab her, say: “Can’t you understand that you don’t get into the pictures just by changing your name? And that you don’t even stay there when you get in? That you can’t even stay there by being female?” Instead he picks up the phone and sells to those tabloids the sickening details of her life, and the next day the headlines will be worse, and he won’t see his daughter. Neither will he spare some of the cash for his mother, who needs thirteen dollars for a train ride home to Nebraska. The old woman looks out the window onto a “cemetery dramatic as a stage set,” and thinks, horrifyingly, that she will live forever.

It’s now the “post-Weinstein era,” so-called as if the worst could not have been imagined before this fall, when stories of Harvey Weinstein’s crimes against women finally broke. That the women are in the movies is significant: Actresses embody in more gendered and sexed ways than we represent ourselves, making us younger and smaller, more appealing. The abuses they are “opening up” about now do not linger because sexual abuses are per se injurious, but because such abuses are insults to bodily integrity, added to the injury that is the sustained depression of the young, the girlish woman’s ego and therefore unbearable. Men acting as men respect ego, not flesh. Fathers know this, yet would rather see daughters become unconscious victims than knowing whores—a classic dichotomy. No movie star in America is about to reveal she slept with that monster for her career’s sake, even though her statement would be no less true of the feminine condition (or rather, as one careful ingenue put it, the “inhumane economic system”) than the statements we do hear, premised on helplessness and a prelapsarian nature.

Weinstein’s record has everything we need in a myth: the fair vestal beauty of nymphs, the ugly power of gods, and hubris. He was such a big man. No wonder so many women are imagining the man who hurt them, whatever his actual stature, as “my Weinstein,” or choosing this time to say “me too.” A triumph of “female storytelling” in a formal sense, the news cycle has taken on the tones and the atmosphere of women’s pictures, featuring sweet and vengeful heroines with powdered cheeks and waterproof mascara; even when the stories sound exaggerated or too banal to excite, only snobs and assholes get bored. Everyone I know is riveted by this daytime soap opera with its internecine plotlines about dick-wielding patriarchs who—almost!—got away with it forever. I read in a report from the Cinema del Festa di Rome that a woman at a press conference asked a certain famous straight white male director whether he feared being implicated in what the Italians continue to call “sex scandals,” and David Lynch replied: “Stay tuned.”

Lynch could have said more, and I would still have to wonder about him as a man, about whether he has done the things that men do in his films. I admit to being succored by stupid questions, like the ones he was asked a long time ago on CBC Midday. Unable to suss out why anyone would make a film as disturbing as the one he was promoting, Blue Velvet(1986), the host, whose name was Valerie, had to ask: “Do you think you’re a genius, or a really sick person?” Lynch smiled like he was flirting with a lady police officer. “Well, Valerie,” he said. “I don’t know.” She had to laugh.

That Lynch didn’t know was never a worse alibi than it was in the case of Blue Velvet, a movie based on his own personal wish to spy on a girl from inside her closet, as Jeffrey (Kyle MacLachlan) does on Dorothy Vallens (Isabella Rossellini, who made the girl more of a woman). Jane Shattuc wrote that the progressive spiritual and physical disease of Frank Booth (Dennis Hopper), and his commensurate, worsening violence against Dorothy, constituted “postmodern misogyny.” Pauline Kael liked it: “His fantasies may come from his unconscious, but he recognizes them for what they are, and he’s tickled by them.” Lynch, attentive to the provoked, did more interviews than usual with female journalists: “There are some women that you want to hit because you’re getting a feeling from them that they want it, or maybe they upset you in a certain way,” he explained to Lizzie Borden in the Village Voice. Does this sound like what a genius would say?

It’s easy, though it isn’t nice, to imagine that one day a former assistant tells a story about Lynch like the one Diane (or, Diane’s tulpa) tells about Cooper (or, Mr. C) in part sixteen  of The Return. The rape plot is common, but here a woman’s account stands in place of seeing what happens, which is rare. Fans would have to find the story believable. Lynch’s ouevre would seem immediately like a shell game in which the object was the reality of what he showed. Flashbacks would be recast as foreshadowing, found in extant reportage: Lynch laughs at the rape scene in Blue Velvet. Lynch, directing a one-minute ad for Clearblue, has the actress take one of the pregnancy tests and switches it with that of a pregnant crew member. (“You bastard!” she yells when he says “Cut.”) Lynch gets frustrated with Wattson the set of Mulholland Drive and jokes, or is it a joke, that “Naomi’s gonna get a spanking.”

It’s harder to imagine that the feeling between this director and his female stars is anything less than love. Rossellini and he are friends, and she continues to speak of him as a genius, even a god. Dern is his neighbor, and she has said that “working with him is home and family.” At this year’s Comic Con, Watts appeared on a panel with nine other cast members of The Return, and talked more like a cult member:

I still get a little star-struck around David because he’s so unique. He’s like another world you want to be a part of, and you just want to please him in everything you do. [Laughing.]That sounds weird. On set! … He creates such an incredibly imaginative world and it’s so original and you just want to join that world at whatever cost.

The “post-Weinstein” discourse has isolated certain costs that the young and the feminine have paid unhappily to participate in the arts and the worlds of men. As a corollary, the category of genius is being problematized as more people who aren’t men become eligible. It’s very annoying, the notion that possessing genius is irrelevant to how people should behave, and that involvement in a masterwork, versus in a work that’s forgettable, promises no extra benefit. Genius is no alibi, but neither is it a myth; it is a spirit that comes into the room. Later, you can only say that you had to be there.

Twin Peaks: The Return, 2017, still from a TV show on Showtime. Season 3, episode 18. Diane Evans (Laura Dern).

“Sometimes the network can give too much respect to an artist,” said the producer Tony Krantz in the New Yorker’s profile of Lynch in 1999, explaining why the planned televised version of Mulholland Drive wouldn’t pan out. Lynch had cast Harring and Watts on instinct, after long looks and talks in lieu of auditions, giving the network no time to complain: “They think the actresses are fantastic-looking, fine talents,” said Krantz, “but they’re a little old.” Harring was thirty-four, Watts thirty-one. Consider the unterrific result had that sexism prevailed. Lynch demands enough respect to share with his actors and actresses, to him irreplaceable.

In September at the second annual Spa-Con in Hot Springs, Arkansas, Sheryl Lee and Sherilynn Fenn dueted on a panel to promote The Return. Lynch once said that in the town of Twin Peaks there were two people he really loved: Audrey Horne, a character written to fit Fenn, and Laura, who became a co-creation with Lee in Fire Walk with Me. Laura’s vivification from body to ageless figure was the dreamiest career arc for a girl. Audrey was unluckier, and Fenn told the audience that when she read the first draft of her storyline, twenty-seven years later, she “cried and shook” and fought with Lynch to change it:

I can’t tell you what it was, but I can tell you what my job is, which is to illuminate the human struggle—<em>my human struggle. I have to stay open, and, even just as a woman in the world, to keep trying to grow, and… that stuff was like,</em> ahhhh, like seriously?

Everyone clapped. They could guess what stuff. Fenn’s reaction to the original provided the material for a rewrite, or at least that would explain the numbing length of her scenes with Charlie and her erratic, reactive, at times contemptuous performance; that, in turn, explains the cathexis when she gives in and reprises Audrey’s dance. Cinema, even on television, has to show what filmmaking essentially is: collaborative, a clash of projections. (Auteurs, by the way, are not always directors. I have always seen Annie Hall as a Diane Keaton movie; if it were a Woody Allen movie, it would be called Anhedonia. But Keaton can’t really direct, as seen when she tried her hand in an episode of Twin Peaks.)

The process is allegory in the finale’s faked denouement, when, at the top of the penultimate hour, over a dozen incompatible characters stand in for figures on a film set. Mr. C, Cooper’s bad double, is a veritable svengali and a shark, arriving first at the Twin Peaks Sheriff Department. The Mitchum Brothers with their hard-won goodwill are the producers, giving Agent Cooper a ride. Andy and Bobby and James must be the hardworking crew. Lucy is the script girl, getting the warning call from Cooper and going straight into the boss’s office to shoot Mr. C before he shoots the Sheriff, who represents, say, the production manager. (She delivers the punchline: “Andy! I understand cell phones now!”) Candie and the bunnies bringing sandwiches on a tray are craft services, while Freddie with the green glove is the stuntman, tasked with defeating evil in the orbular form of Bob. Cooper directs, but his directions are supererogatory urgings-on and the action lacks spirit. Then divine inspiration arrives, how else but in a trembling breast: Naido, despite being played by the Japanese-American actress Nae Yūki, dissolves into the real Diane (Dern), now with a maraschino-cherry wig, à la Marjorie Cameron in Kenneth Anger’s Inauguration of the Pleasure Dome (1954). The movie is reshot before our eyes.

Thrilling to see the work of geniuses and of really sick people, who sometimes live under one name. Instructive, at the very least, to suffer the cruelty and the misery shared in a Lars Von Trier film, or the moral angst in one by Elia Kazan. I watch and rewatch films by Roman Polanski involving tortures for women, particularly Repulsion (1965) and Tess(1979), to see how bad things can get without getting bored. I am for the best possible representations of badness. I want to see the work of a man who raped a thirteen-year-old girl in Gstaad in 1973 and the work of a man who, three years earlier, was in London when he heard that his wife, twenty-six years old, and their baby, twenty days from being born, had been brutally murdered by female teenagers. I am depressed by both the title and the subtitle of Samantha Geimer’s memoir, The Girl: A Life in the Shadow of Roman Polanski(2013), characterizing her as an unknown cast in a production that has been stalled for decades. Film, the medium most conducive to realizing fears, is expressly durational. What it promises in fancy script: The End.
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Twin Peaks: The Return, 2017, still from a TV show on Showtime. Season 3, episode 18. Diane Evans and Agent Dale Cooper (Laura Dern and Kyle MacLachlan).

V.
“She was like the composition of a beautiful puzzle—its composition and its solution at the same time, since one is a mirror view of the other, depending on the way you look.”
—Nabokov, on the subject of Lolita, in Playboy, 1964

COOPER AND DIANE drive in a 1963 Lincoln for 430 miles, and stop. “This is the place,” says Cooper. It’s a road in what looks like the desert outside my house, which is in California. He gets out to feel the hum of the power lines, the only live thing in sight, on his skin. Diane stays in the car.

“Electricity,” enunciated at length like “silencio” at the end of Mulholland Drive, is a buzzword and a curse on The Return. “Electricity is humming,” says the Log Lady (Catherine E. Coulson). “You hear it in the mountains and rivers. You see it dance among the seas and stars and glowing around the moon, but in these days the glow is dying.” When she passes her log turns to gold, a great conductor. Tulpas sprout from gold kernels. Evil sputters out against a rubber glove. Flowing like tears and for as many reasons, electricity charges that love, more than a word, is still not enough. Its salient use: to restart the heart after a failure. But even then.

They cross. They go to a motel. Diane sees her new tulpa loitering while Cooper goes in to get a room. How sublunary it is all of a sudden, another middle-aged man having sex with his ex-secretary somewhere out of the way. An anticlimax is set to the sound of The Platters singing “My Prayer,” a song we first heard at the end of episode eight. Diane looks to the ceiling in agony and not like she’s praying. She puts her hands over the face of Cooper, either because he looks like his double, Mr. C, who raped her, or because she sees the same loss of a love story we see and does not want to cry.

Judy Berman writes, in a piece wonderfully titled “Tears of a Crazy Clown,” that although sentimentality “can be used to the same emotionally manipulative ends as sadism,” it can also “deepen our engagement… and replace unmitigated bleakness with ambiguity.” Sentimental to me is when Cooper, as Dougie, stands imitating a big bronze statue of a cowboy in a corporate plaza, unable to break the pose, as the sun goes down. Sentimental to Berman is when Cooper shuffles off Dougie and fully awakes, saying triumphantly: “I amthe FBI.” (I found that emotional to the brink of propagandistic.) Hence her reading of the original Twin Peaks as more bathetic and The Return as warmer, sincere: “The difference… is that, the second time around, Dale Cooper is fighting for the soul of a town worth saving.”

Cooper was sitting at the Roadhouse when Leland Palmer was choking the life out of Maddie, so that the Giant had to come on stage, interrupting a Julee Cruise show, to tell him. He was standing at the back of the room, staring without moving, when Windom Earle kidnapped Annie, his girlfriend, off the stage at the Miss Twin Peaks Pageant. When the Major disappeared in the woods, Cooper, the only potential witness, was in the bushes taking a leak. He is now the only one sent through time. Too late it is obvious that he has never, not once, saved the day.

He wakes to find Diane gone, split—no longer Diane. He puzzles silently over a goodbye note addressed to “Richard,” signed “Linda.” Some time ago, on his last day in the Black Lodge, Cooper was told by the Giant to “remember Richard and Linda,” but he didn’t write it down and now it seems he’s forgotten.

He checks his watch. Driving, he sees a diner named Judy’s.

“There’s no such thing as a bad coincidence,” says a detective in Lost Highway (1997).

Inside the diner are three guys harassing a waitress. Cooper disables them, takes away their guns, and then, in a gesture as automatic as it is unheard-of, drops each pistol like a chicken wing into the deep fryer. His efficacy perplexes, startles since we just learned to see his inaction as essential. Colors fade from his character. The waitress says yes, there is another waitress, who’s been off for three days. He gets the address and goes.

Richard Burton, in The Anatomy of Melancholy, says the devil is everywhere God is. Nobody better imitates Christ.

Twin Peaks: The Return, 2017, still from a TV show on Showtime. Season 3, episode 18. Carrie Page and Agent Dale Cooper? (Sheryl Lee and Kyle MacLachlan).

VI.
LOLITA What do you know—the same old car.
HUMBERT One last word. Are you quite, quite sure that—well, not tomorrow of course, and not after-tomorrow, but some day, any day—you’ll not come to live with me? I’ll create a God and thank Him with piercing cries, if you give me that small hope.
LOLITA smiles, shakes her head in smiling negation.
HUMBERT It would have made all the difference.

—Nabokov’s screenplay for Stanley Kubrick’s Lolita (1963)

CARRIE PAGE (SHERYL LEE) LIVES in a rented bungalow in Odessa, Texas. The decor is spare to nonexistent. The smells are Pine-Sol, Bounce dryer sheets, something wafting up from the concrete, the mustiness inside a jar of old, dried thyme, and the rotten-banana fume of drugstore nail-polish. She wears a dirty blonde, iron-curled bob that looks inspired by photos of Miranda Lambert, three years ago, in People. Her jeans are “heritage blue” and bootcut, size twenty-nine. Her jewelry is “antique silver.” She’s a waitress. Her entire circumstance has the air of a great find at the thrift store. You would say: Oh, is that a new life? She would reply, with a self-conscious shrug: It’s new to me. She looks like a woman who used to be a girl named Laura Palmer.

Now, if a woman doesn’t know she’s Laura Palmer, I’m not sure why you would tell her. Only a certain governmant man is bent on delivering the news. Carrie, wearing an upside-down horseshoe necklace (a deterministic touch) with a ditsy-floral georgette blouse, answers the knock and talks to Agent Cooper (MacLachlan) through a screen door. She says without seeming to prevaricate that she doesn’t know what he means, has never heard of Laura, or the Palmers, or the town of Twin Peaks. Normally, she says, she would tell someone like him to get lost.

Supposing Carrie is Laura: What’s changed? Men are still beating down her door. One is sitting in the living room with a bullet through his forehead, like a deer she ran over on the road or an abusive boyfriend who got what he deserved. “I do have to get out of Dodge,” she says, without further explanation, to Cooper. They get in the car.

The scene feels akin to the near-end of Kubrick’s Lolita (1963). Embarrassed hopes. Faded, weathered ideals. The moment, terrifying for both the narrator and a young female reader, when it’s clear that the victim is no different from a thousand other girls. A possibility: Carrie is Laura to the degree that Dolores Haze was ever Lolita. Lolita, hard to picture in the novel, has been metaphorized as America herself in her youth, innocence, vulgarity; and, of course, her vaunted ivory whiteness.

At New York magazine, in an essay on David Lynch and race, the critic Frank Guan says that “cinema is a world where flesh is made image and force” and “figures, whatever else they may be, have to be who they appear to be.” Believing the second part would make Hitchcock’s Vertigo (1958) a confusing film and Sirk’s Imitation of Life (1959) a dissatisfying one, but if anyone could believe it it’s Lynch, who often casts on the strength of an actor’s headshot, choosing faces with character. His preference for white faces on the poster may be, per Guan, “the most normal thing about him.” What is normal on today’s screens, however, is to see white leads set against a more “realistically” diverse milieu, whereas here we get casino scenes that look like postcards from Fremont in the 1950s. Lynch’s casting appears especially strange on television, where demographics matter: “These beautiful Nielsen families are in the driver’s seat,” he said toEntertainment Weeklyin 1990. Twenty-seven years later, over two hundred credited actors make The Return one of the two whitest critically acclaimed scripted series set in present-day America and airing this past year (the other is season three of Fargo).

Twin Peaks: The Return, 2017, still from a TV show on Showtime. Season 3, episode 17. Naido (Nae Yūki).

Caucasity this inbred is backwards, perverse—and telelogical. “The crises that force his pale-faced leads to reveal their true nature are subtly and indelibly linked to the violence and discrimination that created and sustains their power, or in other words, whiteness,” as Guan goes on to say. (Or perhaps, as I said in an early recap: “Lynch appropriates whiteness, rendering it less flesh than guise, naïve costume … like a skull mask worn over the face, a skeleton worn over the body on Halloween.”) Several nonwhite actors pass as white, most importantly the late Frank Silva (who in real life was Native American) as Killer Bob, a.k.a. “the evil that men do.” When nonwhite characters enter they seldom speak, unsettling the score: Charlyne Yi responds to brutality by crawling on all fours through a moshpit. Ime Etuk, one of the show’s assistant directors, cameos as an impassive bodyguard to Balthazar Getty’s Red. In Twin Peaks and The Return, as in Blue Velvet, Mulholland Drive, and Inland Empire, the thugs and lowlifes and sex-slavers are always white.

Yet so are all the enslaved. We return to the undying leitmotif of what used to be called “white slavery,” that is to say the prostitution of white girls like the two “fifteen-year-old, straight-A whores” reported missing, never mentioned again, at the end of part seven. The only two black girls on the series are also call girls, but happier ones. There was Jade (Nafessa Williams) in part three of The Return, seen by the critic Niela Orr as “a black symbol in a white world, meant to communicate a vague if deep truth.” There was Jenny (Lisa Ann Cabasa) in episode six of Twin Peaks, a perfume-counter girl at Horne’s whose recruitment for a brothel leads Audrey, Horne’s daughter, into trouble. Jenny and Jade are both naturals. The unsubtlety could pose as an art-historical communiqué, something pointed about black women being born nudes, but even as meta-representation, writes Orr, this would be more like “a self-fulfilling prophecy.”

Lynch has made his pure, unhappy victims shiningly white, played by his favorite actresses, fair-haired. (The exception is Isabella Rossellini as Dorothy in Blue Velvet. Originally, he wanted to cast Helen Mirren.) They are threatened by brunettes. They are led down rabbit holes by darker beauties, racialized or differently raced. Their existential journeys require a transracial phase, as if Lynch clings to the suburban legend that by digging a tunnel in your own backyard, you will end up in China; and the East Asian or “Eurasian” actresses who play these mesmeric alternates have to channel a pallor. (Joan Chen is another exception, partly because her character, Josie, was written by Lynch for Rossellini.) Some perceptual ambiguity results. Like, are we seeing the same women with the same troubles over and over, or the same man’s trouble seeing different women?

Emerging over the course of The Return is “a gradual transition from the depiction of women as victims of violence to figures who have actively been locked in … a battle with female forces on both sides,” as Hanh Nguyen writes at Indiewire. Naido (Nae Yūki) and Diane combine as another albescent dream of goodness in The Return. Sarah Palmer reminds us that her middle name is Judy (or rather, Judith). Laura used to be so shining, with a cool nacreous glamour about her face under autopsy lights and a shadeless incandescence on videotape, but as Carrie she appears on digital with a low, low contrast, hovering over tenebrous. What dignifies her continued existence is looking mortal.

The evil that (white) men do does not become simply the evil that (white) women can do too. The root of evil is not per se whiteness, which hardly existed in “olden times” (the term Lynch, as Cole, uses to mean “ancient,” and to suggest himself as immortal, a legend beyond time and place, somehow capable of nostalgia for the dark ages). Skin privilege here is not the crime, it’s the cover-up. As Kierkegaard said in his last note on Schelling’s lectures, in Berlin in the spring of 1843, which he had been so excited to attend and was now finding tiresome,

Orpheus is a representative of time past. … Homer’s power consists precisely in the power with which he excludes the past. In that always lies the power to suppress the past. Homer is beautiful youth. Homer belongs to the time in which the Hellenic people isolate themselves from the universally human, so that they are really not even a people.

Twin Peaks: The Return, 2017, still from a TV show on Showtime. Season 3, episode 18. Carrie Page and Agent Dale Cooper? (Sheryl Lee and Kyle MacLachlan).

Carrie begins, in the passenger seat, to tremble and finally to speak. What she says is like a sophomoric contemporary poem, but moving.

I tried to keep a clean house,
keep everything organized.
It’s a long way
In those days, I was too young
to know any better.

Cooper and Carrie arrive at the family home. No Palmers live there, despite appearances. Another aging blonde, unfamiliar, childless, answers the door and gives her name as Mrs. Alice Tremond. Before that the owner was a Mrs. Chalfont. These surnames should be known to Cooper, having an esoteric significance in his long-ago investigations, but they don’t seem to ring a bell. The door closes. Cooper, back on the empty street, looks both ways in distress. He wants to know what year it is. Carrie doesn’t want to know anything. A pause. Then, from somewhere dark inside the house, the voice of Sarah Palmer:Laaaauuuuura. And Carrie’s scream.

The last image is a familiar still. Laura, up in the Red Room, whispers the name of her killer into Cooper’s ear, or that’s what she whispered once. Whenever the image recurs as it eternally does, like the same card pulled from a reshuffled deck, she seems to be whispering a different name, or anything, really. “Birds also sing in the winter.” “I have cocaine.” What matters is the delight on her face, and the fact we can’t hear. What makes an image cinematic? A certain ratio. A difference between dark and light. The definite impression of silence, except maybe for the sounds of air. Finally, a sense that time has passed, too much.

Whether Twin Peaks: The Return is a television show or a film is a question that occupies critics and gives way to instant longeurs. The show has ended repeatedly. First, Lynch tossed the script and directed the season two finale, taking it from premature to unexpected, ending with an antagonizing question mark. Then he directed a prequel that ended most satisfyingly, with the ascension, the red velvet curtains. That vision is now revised twice, with screams we can’t hear one more time. The finale’s conclusive. Three periods. Like an ellipsis. To continue would be cruel, if not impossible.

[Fonti: ARTFORUM; Google Traduttore
Il lungo testo che viene qui riproposto serve per affrontare un dibattito che sembra ambiguo e complicato. Si rivolge a chi? A quale stereotipo americano? L’intellettuale engagé, fuori dagli schemi, o ad un pubblico più vasto che capisce le metafore della scrittrice? Usando come prova il Google Traduttore si complica ancor di più il senso di tutto il racconto. Arte nell’arte, ovvero riprendere dagli altri per poi modificare a proprio piacimento il contenuto, la materia, con l’ausilio del traduttore automatico, grimaldello dell’era digitale. Come può la scuola adattarsi alla novità tecnologica se non ha stimoli? I ragazzi usano il traduttore automatico inconsapevolmente, riprendono frasi o aneddoti che forse hanno altri significati.

The long text presented here is used to face a debate that seems ambiguous and complicated. It is aimed at who? What American stereotype? The intellectual engagé, out of the box, or a wider audience that understands the writer’s metaphors? Using as proof the Google Translator gets even more complicated the sense of the whole story. Art in the art, that is, to take back from the others and then to modify the content, the material, with the help of the automatic translator, pick of the digital age. How can the school adapt to technological innovation if it has no stimulation? The boys use the automatic translator unknowingly, they pick up sentences or anecdotes that perhaps have other meanings.]

CONSERVATION AT A CROSSROADS: THE RESTORATION OF A FILM BY BRUCE CONNER

Bruce Conner, Crossroads, 1976, 35 mm, black-and-white, sound, 37 minutes. Still from the 2013 digital remastering.

IN 1996, I was working at the Pacific Film Archive in Berkeley, California. Although I was the cataloguer, Edith Kramer, the PFA’s director at the time, knew I had a background in film printing and processing, and she let me hang around the screening room when the archive was preserving Crossroads (1976), Bruce Conner’s profound reworking of the 1946 Bikini Atoll atomic-bomb test footage.1 The film, a thirty-seven-minute montage choreographing twenty-three black-and-white shots of the underwater nuclear explosion to the accompaniment of a transcendent dual score by pioneering synthesist Patrick Gleeson and composer Terry Riley, is today considered Conner’s masterpiece and one of the most provocative and compelling works to address the atomic era. Having only recently joined the PFA, I was honored to be a fly on the wall as my colleagues worked.
At various stages along the way, Conner would come by the theater with Michael Friend, then of the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences (AMPAS), who was overseeing the project.2 Flash forward to 2012, when the artist’s estate approached the UCLA Film & Television Archive (where I now work as a film preservationist) to collaborate on a new edition of Crossroads: Having witnessed Conner and his team’s extraordinary dedication and the brilliant results of their efforts, I embraced the opportunity to revisit the film with both excitement and curiosity. What had changed in the archival field since the excellent—one might think definitive—author-approved 1996 preservation?3 The short answer is everything. The long answer requires discussion.
If the fundamental goal of moving-image conservation and preservation is saving works for posterity, could further intervention really be needed so soon? Clearly, technological change can create a need for action. However, in so doing, it also quietly demands a reconsideration of the fundamental terms of art’s permanence. (Similar issues arise in the conservation of painting and, to a far greater degree, in that of postwar works made in unconventional media.) One can certainly aim for posterity, but such aims must realistically be tempered with the understanding that even our best efforts will fall short, in practice as well as in theory. Under current conditions of relentless technological transformation, moving-image conservation, preservation, and restoration4 may no longer be seen as guarantors of timelessness but, increasingly, as dynamic functions of the present historical moment.
Let’s, then, describe that present. The most fundamental sea change wrought by the digital revolution is the loss of the singular work. Art conservation has traditionally been based on the maintenance of a unique physical object. In a parallel concept, moving-image works—which are mechanically reproduced in multiple copies—have demanded maintenance of their own medium integrity. Both notions are now, if not obsolete, in danger of becoming so. Rosalind Krauss’s pioneering declaration of a new postmedium condition presciently anticipated our contemporary digital culture, in that the digitization process translates physical properties into disembodied, abstract numeric values.5 Moving-image works are, in practice, subsequently reconstituted in a variety of physical forms—but what is the meaning of medium integrity in such a context?
What was formerly thought of as a singular work may now be seen as a constantly changing entity as it is repeatedly presented over time—here projected as a photochemical film print; there digitally reconstituted for all manner and size of screen. This new dispensation challenges prior notions of authenticity, even those applicable to mass-reproduced works. The authentic singular work is today largely a thing of the past, and moving-image restorationists, if they are to succeed in their mission, must envision multitiered strategies that address conventional notions of archival procedure while simultaneously considering the limitations of current exhibition contexts, even as they seek to improve them.6 Our work on Crossroads offered a unique opportunity to engage these issues in both theory and practice.
[Nel 1996, lavoravo al Pacific Film Archive di Berkeley, in California. Sebbene fossi il catalogatore, Edith Kramer, all’epoca il direttore del PFA, sapeva che avevo un passato nella stampa e nell’elaborazione di film, e mi lasciò in giro per la sala di proiezione quando l’archivio conservava Crossroads (1976), la profonda rielaborazione di Bruce Conner del filmato sulla prova atomica di Atollo Bikini del 1946. Il film, un montaggio di trentasette minuti che coreografa ventitré scatti in bianco e nero dell’esplosione nucleare sottomarina con l’accompagnamento di una doppia partitura trascendente del pioniere del sintetista Patrick Gleeson e il compositore Terry Riley, è oggi considerato il capolavoro di Conner e uno dei lavori più provocatori e convincenti per affrontare l’era atomica. Essendomi da poco entrato a far parte del PFA, sono stato onorato di essere una mosca sul muro mentre i miei colleghi lavoravano.
A vari livelli lungo la strada, Conner sarebbe venuto in teatro con Michael Friend, poi con l’Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences (AMPAS), che supervisionava il progetto.2 Flash in avanti fino al 2012, quando la tenuta dell’artista si avvicinò all’UCLA Film & Television Archive (dove ora lavoro come conservatore di film) per collaborare a una nuova edizione di Crossroads: avendo visto Conner e la straordinaria dedizione del suo team e i brillanti risultati dei loro sforzi, ho abbracciato l’opportunità di rivisitare il film con entrambe le emozioni e curiosità. Che cosa era cambiato nel campo dell’archiviazione dal momento che l’eccellente potrebbe pensare alla conservazione del 1996 approvata dall’autore definitivo? 3 La risposta breve è tutto. La lunga risposta richiede una discussione.
Se l’obiettivo fondamentale della conservazione e conservazione delle immagini in movimento è salvare le opere per i posteri, potrebbe davvero essere necessario un ulteriore intervento così presto? Chiaramente, il cambiamento tecnologico può creare un bisogno di azione. Tuttavia, così facendo, richiede anche quietamente una riconsiderazione dei termini fondamentali della permanenza dell’arte. (Questioni simili sorgono nella conservazione della pittura e, in misura molto maggiore, in quella delle opere del dopoguerra realizzate in mezzi non convenzionali.) Si può certamente mirare ai posteri, ma tali obiettivi devono realisticamente essere mitigati con la comprensione che anche i nostri migliori sforzi fallirà, in pratica e in teoria. In condizioni attuali di inarrestabile trasformazione tecnologica, conservazione, conservazione e restauro delle immagini in movimento4 non possono più essere visti come garanti dell’eternità ma, sempre più, come funzioni dinamiche dell’attuale momento storico.
Diciamo, quindi, descriviamo quel regalo. Il cambiamento di mare più fondamentale operato dalla rivoluzione digitale è la perdita del lavoro singolare. La conservazione dell’arte è stata tradizionalmente basata sul mantenimento di un oggetto fisico unico. In un concetto parallelo, i lavori con immagini in movimento, riprodotti meccanicamente in più copie, hanno richiesto il mantenimento della propria integrità media. Entrambe le nozioni sono ora, se non obsolete, nel pericolo di diventare tali. La pionieristica dichiarazione di Rosalind Krauss di una nuova condizione postmedium anticipava prescientemente la nostra cultura digitale contemporanea, in quanto il processo di digitalizzazione traduce le proprietà fisiche in valori numerici astratti e disincarnati.5 Le opere in movimento sono, in pratica, successivamente ricostituite in una varietà di forme fisiche- ma qual è il significato di media integrità in un tale contesto?
Ciò che prima era pensato come un’opera singolare può ora essere visto come un’entità in continua evoluzione, come viene ripetutamente presentato nel tempo, qui proiettato come una stampa di un film fotochimico; c’è ricostituito digitalmente per tutti i modi e le dimensioni dello schermo. Questa nuova dispensazione mette in discussione le precedenti nozioni di autenticità, anche quelle applicabili alle opere riprodotte in serie. L’autentica opera singolare è oggi in gran parte una cosa del passato, ei restauratori di immagini in movimento, se vogliono avere successo nella loro missione, devono immaginare strategie multitermine che affrontino le nozioni convenzionali di procedura archivistica e contemporaneamente considerino i limiti degli attuali contesti espositivi, anche mentre cercano di migliorarli.6 Il nostro lavoro su Crossroads ha offerto un’opportunità unica per coinvolgere questi temi sia nella teoria che nella pratica.]

BRUCE CONNER AND CROSSROADS
The works of Bruce Conner are particularly salient to this discussion, in that his oeuvre encompasses not just films but assemblage, collage, photography, painting, drawings, and conceptual pranks, and accordingly spanned a range of black-box and white-cube environments (though neither term enjoyed widespread usage when many of the pieces were created).7 Conner, as filmmaker and artist, adeptly bridged the worlds of international cinematheques and art galleries. Accordingly, his work must bead dressed from both film-archive and museum perspectives. His deep investment in formal and presentational qualities only increases the relevance of Crossroads to the above concerns.
The present project was conceived as a new working model for moving-image museum mastering, to exist as a limited edition of six (each including archival 35-mm copies and digital media, as further described below), with production overseen by Michelle Silva on behalf of the Michael Kohn Gallery in Los Angeles (which represents the artist’s film work) and the Conner Family Trust, and myself on behalf of the UCLA Film & Television Archive. Our goal was to attain the highest standards in archival film preservation and simultaneously to ensure the maintenance of Crossroads’s unique aesthetic character in translation to the new media forms needed for contemporary exhibition, through careful control of the digital remastering process.8
[Le opere di Bruce Conner sono particolarmente salienti di questa discussione, in quanto la sua opera comprende non solo film ma assemblaggio, collage, fotografia, pittura, disegni e scherzi concettuali, e di conseguenza ha abbracciato una gamma di ambienti black-box e white-cube ( sebbene nessuno dei due termini abbia goduto di un uso diffuso quando molti dei pezzi sono stati creati). 7 Conner, come regista e artista, ha abilmente collegato il mondo delle cineteche e delle gallerie d’arte internazionali. Di conseguenza, il suo lavoro deve essere vestito sia dall’archivio dei film che dalle prospettive del museo. Il suo profondo investimento in qualità formali e di presentazione non fa altro che aumentare la rilevanza di Crossroads rispetto alle preoccupazioni di cui sopra.
Il presente progetto è stato concepito come un nuovo modello di lavoro per il mastering dei musei con immagini in movimento, per esistere in una serie limitata di sei (ciascuno comprendente copie da 35 mm e supporti digitali, come descritto di seguito), con la supervisione di Michelle Silva su per conto della Galleria Michael Kohn di Los Angeles (che rappresenta il lavoro cinematografico dell’artista) e del Conner Family Trust, e me stesso per conto dell’UCLA Film & Television Archive. Il nostro obiettivo era quello di raggiungere gli standard più elevati nella conservazione dei film d’archivio e allo stesso tempo di assicurare il mantenimento del carattere estetico unico di Crossroads nella traduzione alle nuove forme multimediali necessarie per la mostra contemporanea, attraverso un attento controllo del processo di rimasterizzazione digitale.]

Two stills from Bruce Conner’s Crossroads, 1976, before and after the film’s recent restoration.

If these two parallel aims seem contradictory to some, the contradiction is not as great as one might think. Throughout every step, we held two well-established principles firmly in mind: first, to never do anything irreversible; second, to document our intentions and methodology so as to not falsely represent the nature of our work.9 The realization of our efforts can be seen as an attempt at versioning, with distinct iterations created in both photochemical and digital media. These iterations targeted both cinematheque and gallery spaces in a variety of ways.
A short recap of Crossroads’s unique production history might be useful in understanding the thinking behind our dual strategy. In 1974, Conner contacted the US National Archives with a request to access the government’s nuclear-test footage. As Conner described the project for the Pentagon’s perusal, “there would not be any commentary or dialogue involved. Music and sound effects would accompany the images in a proper and natural manner. The spectacle of the underwater detonation would be the substance of the film production.”10 To Conner’s surprise, he was granted approval, and in characteristically subversive manner, he completed the film to coincide with the American bicentennial.
Both halves of Crossroads’s dual sound track were recorded at Gleeson’s studio, Different Fur Music, in San Francisco. Although Riley’s score was mixed in stereo,11 Dolby Stereo for film was not yet readily available.12 Consequently, the film was released in 35-mm standard mono sound, as well as in 16 mm, which is inherently mono.
The 1996 joint preservation by PFA and AMPAS utilized 35-mm film with mono sound and served as an excellent preservation of the original 1976 release. However, in 2003, Conner himself went back to the original stereo recordings of Riley’s score and released a new version—in standard-definition video. At this time, he also reframed many of the pictorial compositions to eliminate or reduce visible scratches in the source footage, and he made a slight editorial change in the pacing of the end credits while leaving their text unchanged.
When we approached Crossroads anew, we thus confronted a work that had itself metamorphosed under the artist’s guidance over the years, from conception to initial realization to subsequent revision, at key points responding to the practical limitations and production climate of the moment. We, too, would continue that process, even as we sought to preserve the film’s essence in the translation to digital media.
[Se questi due obiettivi paralleli sembrano contraddittori ad alcuni, la contraddizione non è così grande come si potrebbe pensare. In ogni fase, abbiamo tenuto ben presenti due principi ben consolidati: in primo luogo, non fare mai nulla di irreversibile; in secondo luogo, per documentare le nostre intenzioni e metodologia in modo da non rappresentare falsamente la natura del nostro lavoro.9 La realizzazione dei nostri sforzi può essere vista come un tentativo di controllo delle versioni, con distinte iterazioni create sia nei supporti fotochimici che digitali. Queste iterazioni hanno interessato sia la cineteca che gli spazi della galleria in vari modi.
Un breve riepilogo della storia di produzione unica di Crossroads potrebbe essere utile per comprendere il pensiero alla base della nostra doppia strategia. Nel 1974, Conner contattò gli Archivi Nazionali degli Stati Uniti con una richiesta di accesso al filmato del governo nucleare. Come Conner descrisse il progetto per la lettura del Pentagono, “non ci sarebbero commenti o dialoghi coinvolti. La musica e gli effetti sonori accompagnerebbero le immagini in modo corretto e naturale. Lo spettacolo della detonazione subacquea sarebbe la sostanza della produzione cinematografica. “10 Con sorpresa di Conner, gli fu concessa l’approvazione e, in modo tipicamente sovversivo, completò il film in coincidenza con il bicentenario americano.
Entrambe le metà della doppia colonna sonora di Crossroads sono state registrate nello studio di Gleeson, Different Fur Music, a San Francisco. Anche se la colonna sonora di Riley è stata mixata in stereo, 11 Dolby Stereo per film non era ancora disponibile12. Di conseguenza, il film è stato rilasciato in un suono mono standard da 35 mm, nonché in 16 mm, che è intrinsecamente mono.
La conservazione congiunta del 1996 da parte di PFA e AMPAS utilizzava film da 35 mm con suono mono e serviva come eccellente conservazione dell’originale del 1976. Tuttavia, nel 2003, Conner stesso è tornato alle registrazioni stereo originali della colonna sonora di Riley e ha rilasciato una nuova versione – in video a definizione standard. A questo punto, ha anche riformulato molte delle composizioni pittoriche per eliminare o ridurre i graffi visibili nel filmato sorgente, e ha apportato un leggero cambiamento editoriale nel ritmo dei titoli di coda lasciando il testo invariato.
Quando ci siamo avvicinati nuovamente a Crossroads, abbiamo affrontato un lavoro che si è trasformato da solo sotto la guida dell’artista nel corso degli anni, dal concepimento alla realizzazione iniziale fino alla revisione successiva, in punti chiave che rispondono ai limiti pratici e al clima di produzione del momento. Anche noi continueremo questo processo, anche se cercavamo di preservare l’essenza del film nella traduzione sui media digitali.]

FROM FILM TO DIGITAL AND BACK AGAIN
Our practical work began with a careful replication of the authorized 1996 photochemical preservation. The original effort had been conducted at the Cinetech laboratory in Los Angeles, which now, like many photochemical labs, was in the process of winding down its operations as a consequence of the paradigmatic changes that were so precipitously transforming the industry. We created a single new “check” print, which emulated the 1996 print, and it was completed and viewed on Cinetech’s very last day of business, October 10, 2012. This print would serve as the starting point for our subsequent labors.
The primary preservation elements of the earlier project were 35-mm fine-grain master positives, still in perfect condition in the vaults of the PFA and of UCLA, respectively.13Given the thoroughness of the prior endeavor, no further work was needed to ensure archival preservation of the 1976 version with full medium integrity retained. But what of Conner’s revisions and, particularly, the demands of current exhibition practices? While museum conservators are well aware of the importance of medium integrity, nevertheless (we were not surprised to learn) many of the purchasing institutions had no viable way to properly present 35-mm film.14
The museums acknowledged the ethical need to maintain 35-mm prints, but simultaneously required high-quality digital editions to effectively exhibit the work. This practical imperative intersected with our studies of Crossroads’s production history, giving rise to a strategy that supplemented and ultimately complemented the 1996 archival work. The following is an overview of our efforts, which should provide a snapshot of both the promise and technological limits of the present historical moment.

VERSIONING­­­­­
To complement our photochemical film print, we began our digital work by scanning and archiving the original 35-mm negative to 4K-resolution files.15 Then Silva and I conducted a close review of the differing content in the 1976 photochemical and 2003 standard-definition video versions. We ultimately determined that, though we would fully preserve both versions, our primary exhibition edition would be one that in essence had never existed before: a high-resolution reinterpretation of the final, 2003 low-resolution Conner cut. This would be remastered for appropriate presentation in a variety of contemporary exhibition conditions, including both 35-mm film and digital media. Motion-picture archivists generally refer to this type of “new” version as a reconstruction. In this case, the reconstruction represents the primary public component of what is in reality a multitiered strategy that at once recognizes an archival imperative to respect the artist’s original vision and self-consciously exhibits a subjectivity that is becoming increasingly acknowledged in restoration work.16
[
Il nostro lavoro pratico è iniziato con un’attenta replica della conservazione fotochimica 1996 autorizzata. Lo sforzo iniziale era stato condotto presso il laboratorio Cinetech di Los Angeles, che ora, come molti laboratori di fotochimica, stava terminando le sue operazioni come conseguenza dei cambiamenti paradigmatici che stavano trasformando così rapidamente l’industria. Abbiamo creato una singola nuova stampa “check”, che ha emulato la stampa del 1996, ed è stata completata e visualizzata nell’ultimo giorno di attività di Cinetech, il 10 ottobre 2012. Questa stampa sarebbe servita come punto di partenza per i nostri lavori successivi.
Gli elementi di conservazione primari del progetto precedente erano i master positivi a 35 mm di diametro fine, ancora in perfette condizioni nei caveau del PFA e dell’UCLA, rispettivamente.13 Data l’accuratezza dello sforzo precedente, non era necessario alcun ulteriore lavoro per assicurare l’archiviazione conservazione della versione del 1976 con integrità media piena conservata. Ma quali sono le revisioni di Conner e, in particolare, le richieste delle attuali pratiche espositive? Mentre i conservatori del museo sono ben consapevoli dell’importanza dell’integrità media, tuttavia (non siamo stati sorpresi di apprendere) molte delle istituzioni di acquisto non avevano un modo praticabile per presentare correttamente un film da 35 mm.14
I musei hanno riconosciuto l’esigenza etica di mantenere le stampe 35 mm, ma allo stesso tempo hanno richiesto edizioni digitali di alta qualità per esibire efficacemente il lavoro. Questo imperativo pratico si è intersecato con i nostri studi sulla storia della produzione di Crossroads, dando vita a una strategia che ha integrato e completato in ultima analisi l’opera d’archivio del 1996. Quello che segue è una panoramica dei nostri sforzi, che dovrebbe fornire un’istantanea della promessa e dei limiti tecnologici dell’attuale momento storico.

VERSIONING
Per completare la nostra stampa di pellicole fotochimiche, abbiamo iniziato il nostro lavoro digitale eseguendo la scansione e l’archiviazione dei file da 35 mm negativi a quelli a risoluzione 4K.15 Quindi Silva e io abbiamo condotto una revisione ravvicinata dei diversi contenuti della definizione standard del 2003 fotochimica e del 2003 versioni video. Alla fine abbiamo deciso che, sebbene avremmo preservato completamente entrambe le versioni, la nostra prima edizione della fiera sarebbe stata una di quelle che in essenza non era mai esistita prima: una reinterpretazione ad alta risoluzione del taglio Conner a bassa risoluzione del 2003. Questo sarebbe rimasterizzato per una presentazione appropriata in una varietà di condizioni espositive contemporanee, compresi film da 35 mm e media digitali. Gli archivisti cinematografici di solito si riferiscono a questo tipo di “nuova” versione come ricostruzione. In questo caso, la ricostruzione rappresenta la principale componente pubblica di quella che è in realtà una strategia a più livelli che riconosce immediatamente un imperativo archivistico per rispettare la visione originale dell’artista e mostra in modo consapevole una soggettività che è sempre più riconosciuta nel lavoro di restauro16.]

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Bruce Conner, Crossroads, 1976, 35 mm, black-and-white, sound, 37 minutes. Still from the 2013 digital remastering.

GRAIN MANAGEMENT
Early digital restorations were frequently conducted by laboratory technicians who were accustomed to working on new Hollywood films, with the result that many exhibited a degree of polish and, to many critics, sterility that was not typical of historical titles. As our collective understanding of the process has progressed, archives and laboratories alike have become increasingly aware of photochemical image characteristics that should ideally be retained in translation to digital media. Primary among these is film grain, which fundamentally differs from the regularized structure of pixels. Whereas early efforts frequently removed grain as undesirable, newer productions have made efforts to retain it.
As this concept has gained credence, it has become more and more common to remove grain for a variety of reasons, and to later generate digital grain to replace it, following various stages of image processing. However, not all grain is alike. Even when“replacement grain” is specifically modeled on the grain removed from the original source, transformations occur. For Crossroads, it was determined that retention of grain character was a high priority, taking precedence over digital cleanup when conflict between the two arose.17This decision would set the table for the remainder of our work.

DIRT AND SCRATCH REMOVAL
Just as human subjectivity plays a greater role in the restoration process than many care to admit, so too does “digital subjectivity.” When a computer assesses an image to distinguish intended content from incidental damage, a degree of “interpretation” is necessarily built into the computation process. This interpretive act is far from infallible. As one example, dirt-removal software works more successfully on a degrained image, precisely because computers easily mistake grain for dirt. Continuous vertical “tramline” scratches present even greater challenges for software, which can’t easily distinguish them from vertical lines that may happen to appear in the photographic composition. In such cases, digital hand-painting is usually the preferred method, in that it restores human discretion to the process. Unfortunately, hand-painting is extremely expensive.
The question then becomes, In what areas, and to what degree, can a project compromise? For Crossroads, we used automated cleanup just to the point where grain patterns would become noticeably affected were the process to continue; from there on, we engaged in extensive hand-painting. Certain production “problems” were intentionally retained as part of the work.18 The result is a new version that is substantially cleaner than the original copies but still far from pristine. While future tools may enable a more thorough cleanup, the current work embodies an engaged dance between the film’s content and the limits of contemporary technology—as did the original.

STABILIZATION
A common selling point of digital cinema is that its image is more stable than that of motion-picture film, which, when projected, often exhibits a subtle jitter that the human brain steadies in the act of perception. To my mind, stabilization is overrated. When the jitter is not pronounced, the brain’s internal regulating process compensates for the movement quite well; an overstabilized image, on the other hand, often loses a certain dynamism. In the case of Crossroads, selected shots exhibited a jitter that could be traced back to environmental conditions at the time of filming the atomic explosion and hence demanded retention. Others displayed a jitter that resulted from camera problems, creating effects that we know displeased Conner and could be improved upon. In some cases, unstable images were the result of camera problems that could not be digitally corrected without causing collateral defects, such as softening or blurring of the image. In such cases the stabilization was dialed back, and the images retained both sharpness and the unwanted movement.

[GRAIN MANAGEMENT / gestione del grano
I primi restauri digitali venivano spesso condotti da tecnici di laboratorio che erano abituati a lavorare su nuovi film di Hollywood, con il risultato che molti esibivano un grado di lucido e, a molti critici, sterilità che non era tipico dei titoli storici. Con il progredire della nostra comprensione collettiva del processo, archivi e laboratori sono diventati sempre più consapevoli delle caratteristiche dell’immagine fotochimica che dovrebbero idealmente essere conservate nella traduzione su supporti digitali. Primaria tra queste è la grana della pellicola, che differisce fondamentalmente dalla struttura regolarizzata dei pixel. Mentre gli sforzi iniziali spesso rimuovevano il grano come indesiderabile, le nuove produzioni hanno fatto sforzi per mantenerlo.
Poiché questo concetto ha acquisito credibilità, è diventato sempre più comune rimuovere il grano per una serie di motivi e successivamente generare grano digitale per sostituirlo, seguendo varie fasi dell’elaborazione delle immagini. Tuttavia, non tutti i grani sono uguali. Anche quando il “grano di sostituzione” è modellato specificamente sul grano rimosso dalla fonte originale, si verificano trasformazioni. Per Crossroads, è stato stabilito che la conservazione del carattere di grana era una priorità elevata, avendo la precedenza sulla pulizia digitale quando il conflitto tra i due si manifestava17. Questa decisione avrebbe preparato il tavolo per il resto del nostro lavoro.

DIRT AND SCRATCH REMOVAL / RIMOZIONE DI SPORCO E GRAFFIO
Proprio come la soggettività umana gioca un ruolo più importante nel processo di restauro di quanto molti lo ammettano, così fa anche la “soggettività digitale”. Quando un computer valuta un’immagine per distinguere il contenuto previsto dal danno accidentale, un grado di “interpretazione” è necessariamente incorporato in il processo di calcolo. Questo atto interpretativo è tutt’altro che infallibile. Ad esempio, il software di rimozione della sporcizia funziona con maggiore efficacia su un’immagine ridotta, proprio perché i computer scambiano facilmente il grano con la sporcizia. I graffi “lineari” verticali continui presentano sfide ancora più grandi per il software, che non è in grado di distinguerli facilmente dalle linee verticali che potrebbero apparire nella composizione fotografica. In questi casi, la pittura digitale a mano è solitamente il metodo preferito, in quanto ripristina la discrezionalità umana nel processo. Sfortunatamente, la pittura a mano è estremamente costosa.
La domanda diventa quindi, in quali aree e in che misura un progetto può compromettere? Per Crossroads, abbiamo utilizzato la pulizia automatica proprio nel punto in cui i modelli di grana sarebbero stati notevolmente influenzati dal processo da seguire; da lì in poi, ci siamo impegnati in un’estesa pittura a mano. Alcuni “problemi” di produzione sono stati intenzionalmente mantenuti come parte del lavoro.18 Il risultato è una nuova versione che è sostanzialmente più pulita delle copie originali, ma ancora lontana dall’essere incontaminata. Mentre gli strumenti futuri possono consentire una pulizia più approfondita, il lavoro attuale comprende una danza impegnata tra il contenuto del film ei limiti della tecnologia contemporanea, come ha fatto l’originale.

STABILIZATION / STABILIZZAZIONE
Un punto di vendita comune del cinema digitale è che la sua immagine è più stabile di quella del film cinematografico, che, una volta proiettato, mostra spesso un nervosismo sottile che il cervello umano sostiene nell’atto di percezione. A mio parere, la stabilizzazione è sopravvalutata. Quando il jitter non è pronunciato, il processo di regolazione interna del cervello compensa abbastanza bene il movimento; un’immagine sovraordinata, d’altra parte, spesso perde un certo dinamismo. Nel caso di Crossroads, gli scatti selezionati hanno mostrato un jitter che potrebbe essere ricondotto alle condizioni ambientali al momento della ripresa dell’esplosione atomica e quindi della ritenzione richiesta. Altri hanno mostrato un jitter derivante da problemi con la fotocamera, creando effetti che sappiamo essere scontenti di Conner e potrebbero essere migliorati. In alcuni casi, le immagini instabili erano il risultato di problemi della fotocamera che non potevano essere corretti digitalmente senza causare difetti collaterali, come l’attenuazione o la sfocatura dell’immagine. In tali casi, la stabilizzazione è stata richiamata e le immagini hanno mantenuto sia la nitidezza che il movimento indesiderato.

FLICKER AND PULSING
Conner’s meticulous production notes expressly state a desire to retain exposure variations within selected shots. Where indicated, these exposure variations were retained. Elsewhere, digital color- and density-correction tools enabled a degree of pulse elimination not easily obtained by means of photochemical film grading.19 In some cases, this process resulted in a flattening of the image that drained it of character, so again the process was dialed back to more faithfully emulate the original—flaws included.

FRAMING AND REPOSITIONING
When a work is translated from one medium to another, its image is frequently cropped, often broadly and sometimes subtly. When remastering Crossroads onto standard-definition video in 2003, Conner (in a salient example of subtle cropping) intentionally magnified selected shots to eliminate visible scratches. The 2003 edition thus had different framings than the initial 1976 film release. When it came time to conduct our principal work, we found we could indeed eliminate selected tramline scratches via this method, reducing the need for digital cleanup. We further found that the tightly controlled frame lines of digital cinema allowed us to be more conservative in our cropping than Conner had been in 2003. We thus created a version with framings that matched neither the 1976 nor the 2003 versions but sat somewhere between the two.20 Non-practice-based notions of ethical purity may make such repositionings sound heretical, but they are common practice and are here acknowledged, however slight they may be.

[FLICKER AND PULSING / FLICKER E PULSANTE
Le meticolose note di produzione di Conner esprimono esplicitamente il desiderio di mantenere le variazioni di esposizione all’interno degli scatti selezionati. Dove indicato, queste variazioni di esposizione sono state mantenute. Altrove, gli strumenti digitali di correzione del colore e della densità hanno consentito un grado di eliminazione dell’impulso non facilmente ottenibile mediante la gradazione fotochimica del film.19 In alcuni casi, questo processo ha provocato un appiattimento dell’immagine che lo ha prosciugato di carattere, quindi di nuovo il processo è stato richiamato per emulare più fedelmente i difetti originali inclusi.

FRAMING AND REPOSITIONING / MONTAGGIO E RIPOSIZIONAMENTO
Quando un’opera viene tradotta da un mezzo a un altro, la sua immagine viene spesso ritagliata, spesso in modo ampio e talvolta sottilmente. Durante la rimasterizzazione di Crossroads su un video a definizione standard nel 2003, Conner (in un eccezionale esempio di ritaglio sottile) ha intenzionalmente ingrandito i colpi selezionati per eliminare i graffi visibili. L’edizione del 2003 ha quindi avuto diverse inquadrature rispetto alla prima uscita del film del 1976. Quando è arrivato il momento di condurre il nostro lavoro principale, abbiamo scoperto che potevamo effettivamente eliminare i graffi delle piste selezionati tramite questo metodo, riducendo la necessità di una pulizia digitale. Abbiamo inoltre scoperto che le linee di fotogrammi del cinema digitale strettamente controllate ci hanno permesso di essere più conservatori nel nostro ritaglio rispetto a Conner nel 2003. Abbiamo quindi creato una versione con cornici che non corrispondevano né alle versioni del 1976 né alle 2003, ma si trovavano da qualche parte tra i due 20 Le nozioni non basate sulla pratica della purezza etica possono rendere eretici tali riposizionamenti, ma sono pratiche comuni e sono qui riconosciute, per quanto lievi possano essere.]

Still from the 2013 digital remastering of Bruce Conner’s Crossroads, 1976, 35 mm, black-and-white, sound, 37 minutes.

CONTRAST AND COLOR CORRECTION
The minor adjustment to framing described above is but part of a larger phenomenon. As I’ve argued before, it is fallacious to think that “perfect emulation” of a static original is the consensus aim of restorationists—or, in fact, even possible.21 The perceptual experience of photochemical film is different from that of digital images when viewed on monitors, and yet again in projection. In our work on Crossroads, we thus utilized available color-correction tools to moderate density and contrast, optimizing the image for presentation in contemporary digital environments while simultaneously retaining its “film” character in terms of grain structure, flicker, and image stability.
While this might worry theorists unversed in technology, such variances are again commonplace, if often misunderstood. Moreover, it is ontologically impossible to replicate one medium in another. In medium translations, interpretation is intrinsically part of the work process, whether one wishes to acknowledge it or not. To presume otherwise and relinquish human intervention in translation is to presume that the technology enabling translation is itself neutral; yet believing so is itself subjective faith. Some would argue that medium translations should not be undertaken, period. While I deeply value medium integrity, I would temper my own vocal support of it (as I have previously22) with the suggestion that although it is essential for some works, it isn’t for others. And while I accept the fact that certain works must be lost to the winds of history, not all works in obsolescent media must necessarily be forfeited. Another type of cultural loss ensues when works that might successfully survive translation are withheld from it, in adherence to a rigid Platonic ideal. Ironically, some works can be if not “restored” then reimagined and reembodied, precisely in their transformation. The challenge in this enterprise is skillful execution.

DIGITAL FILM-OUT
Upon completion of the digital version of Crossroads, we conducted extensive testing to ensure the highest possible quality in digital-to-film recording and subsequent 35-mm film prints.23 As we had already interpreted the tonal character of the image, it did not make sense to base this work on side-by-side comparisons with older prints, which would by definition yield a mismatch. We conducted such studies only upon completion of the work, for research purposes exclusively. Similarly, we retained our working premise that the new 35-mm prints constitute a different medium than the digital version. Every decision we made was in the service of achieving the most satisfying 35-mm black-and-white film rendition of the digital work possible.24 Upon project completion, we had thus created a total of three different versions of Crossroads: 35-mm analog/photochemical, digital, and 35-mm digital film-out; each with distinct image characteristics acknowledged.

REIMAGINING THE SPACE OF SOUND
Just as the picture of Crossroads was subjectively rendered, so too was the sound. As mentioned, Conner had not initially released the film in stereo because of practical industrial limitations at the time of completion. As archivists, we were ethically committed to the preservation of the work as released. However, once we had secured that goal,25 we evaluated the source material (as we had done with the picture) to determine the best strategy for our primary exhibition versions. Again we modeled our work on Conner’s final 2003 remastering, and again subtly reenvisioned it for contemporary technology. In so doing, we similarly transgressed the received wisdom and generally accepted parameters of film preservation. By default and intent alike, we adapted the acoustical dimensioning to current exhibition conditions.
Riley’s score, as I have noted, was initially mixed in two-channel stereo. After ensuring archival preservation of the unretouched 1976 mono optical track, we digitally restored the sound. Audio Mechanics studio founder John Polito, in close dialogue with Silva and myself, conformed the original quarter-inch-mix master to the final edit. He then carefully removed system-induced noise generated by rerecording while retaining sound anomalies traceable to the original recordings. The cleaned-up files were archived in both mono and stereo.
The next step was to format the two-channel stereo version for exhibition, a process much less straightforward than one might think. Although 35-mm prints with Dolby Digital sound tracks can accommodate a straight rendition of two-channel sound within its native 5.1 channel configuration, this practice is prohibitively expensive for virtually all but studio releases because of the proprietary fee for its usage. The more viable option for independent artworks, Dolby Stereo, entails spreading two stereo channels to four: left, center, right, and surround.26 For our 35-mm stereo prints we utilized this process by necessity, and the resulting track consequently features a slightly different acoustical dimensioning than either prior version, if only as a result of the system’s default encoding process.

[CONTRAST AND COLOR CORRECTION / CONTRASTO E CORREZIONE COLORE
L’aggiustamento minore all’inquadratura sopra descritta è solo una parte di un fenomeno più ampio. Come ho già sostenuto, è errato pensare che la “perfetta emulazione” di un originale statico sia l’obiettivo consensuale dei restauratori – o, in realtà, persino possibile.21 L’esperienza percettiva del film fotochimico è diversa da quella delle immagini digitali se visualizzato su monitor e ancora in proiezione. Nel nostro lavoro su Crossroads, abbiamo quindi utilizzato strumenti di correzione del colore disponibili per moderare la densità e il contrasto, ottimizzando l’immagine per la presentazione negli ambienti digitali contemporanei mantenendo nel contempo il suo carattere “cinematografico” in termini di grana, sfarfallio e stabilità dell’immagine.
Mentre questo potrebbe preoccupare teorici non orientati nella tecnologia, tali variazioni sono di nuovo comuni, se spesso fraintese. Inoltre, è ontologicamente impossibile replicare un mezzo in un altro. Nelle traduzioni medie, l’interpretazione è intrinsecamente parte del processo di lavoro, sia che si desideri riconoscerlo o meno. Presumere il contrario e abbandonare l’intervento umano nella traduzione significa presumere che la tecnologia che consente la traduzione sia di per sé neutrale; tuttavia credere così è esso stesso fede soggettiva. Alcuni sostengono che le traduzioni medie non dovrebbero essere intraprese, punto. Mentre apprezzo profondamente l’integrità media, vorrei temperare il mio stesso sostegno vocale (come ho precedentemente22) con il suggerimento che, sebbene sia essenziale per alcuni lavori, non è per gli altri. E mentre accetto il fatto che certe opere debbano essere perse per i venti della storia, non tutte le opere in mezzi obsolescenti devono necessariamente essere perse. Un altro tipo di perdita culturale si ha quando le opere che potrebbero sopravvivere con successo alla traduzione vengono nascoste da esso, in aderenza a un rigido ideale platonico. Ironia della sorte, alcune opere possono essere se non “restaurate”, quindi reimmaginate e reincarnate, proprio nella loro trasformazione. La sfida in questa impresa è l’esecuzione abile.

DIGITAL FILM-OUT
Al completamento della versione digitale di Crossroads, abbiamo condotto test approfonditi per garantire la massima qualità possibile nella registrazione da digitale a film e successive stampe di pellicole da 35 mm.23 Come avevamo già interpretato il carattere tonale dell’immagine, non ha senso basare questo lavoro su confronti fianco a fianco con stampe precedenti, che per definizione darebbero una discrepanza. Abbiamo condotto tali studi solo al termine del lavoro, esclusivamente a scopo di ricerca. Allo stesso modo, abbiamo mantenuto la nostra premessa di lavoro che le nuove stampe da 35 mm costituiscono un mezzo diverso rispetto alla versione digitale. Ogni decisione che abbiamo preso è stata al servizio della realizzazione della più soddisfacente resa in bianco e nero di 35 mm del lavoro digitale.24 Dopo il completamento del progetto, abbiamo così creato un totale di tre diverse versioni di Crossroads: 35 mm film digitale analogico / fotochimico, digitale e 35 mm; ciascuno con caratteristiche dell’immagine distinte riconosciute.

REIMAGINING THE SPACE OF SOUND / REIMAGINARE LO SPAZIO DEL SUONO
Proprio come l’immagine di Crossroads è stata resa soggettivamente, così pure il suono. Come accennato, Conner non aveva inizialmente rilasciato il film in stereo a causa di limiti pratici industriali al momento del completamento. Come archivisti, eravamo eticamente impegnati nella conservazione del lavoro come rilasciato. Tuttavia, una volta raggiunto questo obiettivo, 25 abbiamo valutato il materiale sorgente (come avevamo fatto con la foto) per determinare la migliore strategia per le nostre versioni di esposizione primaria. Ancora una volta abbiamo modellato il nostro lavoro sulla rimasterizzazione finale di Conner nel 2003, e ancora una volta l’abbiamo reinterpretato sottilmente per la tecnologia contemporanea. Così facendo, abbiamo trasgredito in modo simile la saggezza ricevuta e i parametri generalmente accettati di conservazione del film. Di default e intenti allo stesso modo, abbiamo adattato il dimensionamento acustico alle attuali condizioni di esposizione.
Il punteggio di Riley, come ho notato, è stato inizialmente mixato in stereo a due canali. Dopo aver assicurato la conservazione dell’archivio della traccia mono ottica 1976 non ritoccata, abbiamo ripristinato digitalmente il suono. Il fondatore dello studio di Audio Mechanics, John Polito, in stretto dialogo con Silva e me stesso, ha adattato il master originale da un quarto di pollice alla modifica finale. Quindi ha rimosso con attenzione il rumore indotto dal sistema generato dalla registrazione vocale, pur mantenendo le anomalie del suono riconducibili alle registrazioni originali. I file ripuliti sono stati archiviati sia in mono che in stereo.
Il passo successivo è stato quello di formattare la versione stereo a due canali per la mostra, un processo molto meno semplice di quanto si possa pensare. Sebbene le stampe 35 mm con le colonne sonore Dolby Digital possano ospitare una riproduzione diretta del suono a due canali all’interno della configurazione nativa a 5.1 canali, questa pratica è proibitiva per quasi tutti i rilasci in studio a causa della tariffa proprietaria per il suo utilizzo. L’opzione più praticabile per opere d’arte indipendenti, Dolby Stereo, comporta la diffusione di due canali stereo a quattro: sinistra, centro, destra e surround.26 Per le nostre stampe stereo 35 mm abbiamo utilizzato questo processo per necessità, e la traccia risultante presenta di conseguenza dimensionamento acustico leggermente diverso rispetto a una versione precedente, se non altro come risultato del processo di codifica predefinito del sistema.]

Still from the 2013 digital remastering of Bruce Conner’s Crossroads, 1976, 35 mm, black-and-white, sound, 37 minutes.

For our digital version, we needed to anticipate a multiplicity of playback environments, encompassing traditional cinematheque, museum, and gallery spaces. Crucially, we had to consider the many variables at play in presenting audiovisual works in the white cube or in semicontrolled black-cube environments within museums. For this key stage of the work, we again did not adhere to strict literalist notions of reproduction. Silva’s direct collaboration with the artist proved vital at this juncture. In joining her intimate knowledge of Conner’s working method with the material evidence of his subsequent revision ofCrossroads, we witnessed not a desire to freeze the picture and sound quality in the exhibition technology of one era, but rather a clear intent to move and adapt. We thus decided, in dialogue with both composers, to unobtrusively dimension the film’s two scores within the 5.1 stereo format.
I should stress that we did nothing resembling the effects-based sound spreading sometimes undertaken for commercial films, whereby non-surround audio is expanded to 5.1 to create an illusion that noises are originating in specific places around the theater. Polito, to the contrary, employed different techniques for each of the two scores to distribute the overall sound environmentally.27 While doing the above work, we also ensured that our 5.1 version was 100 percent mono-compatible, meaning that, if played back in a mono system, the output would emulate the mono original and not a corrupted version of it. Not all methods of spreading allow this.

DURATION, CONTENT, AND ENVIRONMENTAL CON­SIDERATIONS IN MOVING-IMAGE PRESENTATION
By this point, I hope to have made clear that our reconstruction actively interpretedCrossroads in its rendition of the film. The last aspect of our work that should be mentioned in this regard involved the film’s editorial content. Conner’s 2003 video remastering featured only one notable change from the 1976 original: He readjusted the timing of the film’s end credits. The original release—taking up an idea of Riley’s—featured an extended section of black screen while the music continued after the final image’s fade-out and before the end credits at last commenced in silence. In 2003, Conner truncated the black ever so slightly, so that the credits began shortly before the music’s conclusion and ended in silence. While I know at least one purist who feels that the full black duration makes a crucial difference, both Silva and I agreed that Conner’s 2003 choice, which minimally reduces that expanse of black, does nothing to diminish the metaphysical meditation suggested by Riley’s desired delay, while alleviating the arguably unnecessary durational challenge posed by the credits in isolation. Although this value judgment was one of several reasons we chose the 2003 edition as the model for our primary viewing version, we nevertheless fully preserved both versions in the archives of UCLA.
The issue of duration itself should also be raised in the context of larger problems of gallery exhibition. Crossroads is relatively well suited to museum presentation in that its reception is not completely dependent on sequential viewing, thanks to its repeated depiction of the bomb’s explosion from multiple angles. Ambulatory viewers experiencing only a portion of the work can at least glimpse and sense aspects of the larger ideas behind it. That said, crucial things are missed in such a context. One of Conner’s major structuring devices is his placement of Gleeson’s score—which uses re-creations of representational and quotidian sounds, including explosions, countdowns, and birdsong—prior to Riley’s transcendental, nonrepresentational music. In gallery exhibitions, not only will passing viewers largely miss this dynamic, but continuous looping without interruption makes the piece cyclical—an interesting strategy in its own right, but not Conner’s intent. Looping also creates the probability that some viewers will experience the Gleeson/Riley sequencing inreverse—and have to mentally reconstruct Conner’s design.
Likewise, the film’s last shot, which lingers over the sea for an extended time after the bomb’s blast, cannot be fully experienced via mere glimpses. In this respect, Crossroads is hardly unique: Key aspects of most moving-image works cannot be fully conveyed in the context of itinerant, nonsequential gallery viewing. This troublesome condition is only one of many that point to systemic challenges posed by the traditional nature of museums themselves, which are ill adapted for audiovisual works, even though such works arguably constitute the core expressive form of contemporary life.
Ironically, much of the painstaking effort that has gone into our work on Crossroads could be undone in practice if viewing conditions in the displaying institution were inadequate. To address this, the Conner Family Trust and Michael Kohn Gallery have negotiated detailed agreements with purchasers that consider both archival and presentational issues, assuring at least a degree of control over both exhibition and future remastering, to maintain the work as needed for posterity within the scope of the limited edition being generated.28

[DURATA, CONTENUTO E CONSIDERAZIONI AMBIENTALI NELLA PRESENTAZIONE DELLE IMMAGINI IN MOVIMENTO
A questo punto, spero di aver chiarito che la nostra ricostruzione ha attivamente interpretato Crossroads nella sua interpretazione del film. L’ultimo aspetto del nostro lavoro che dovrebbe essere menzionato a riguardo riguarda il contenuto editoriale del film. La rimasterizzazione video di Conner del 2003 prevedeva solo un cambiamento notevole rispetto all’originale del 1976: riadattò i tempi dei titoli di coda del film. La versione originale – che riprende un’idea di Riley – prevedeva una sezione estesa di schermo nero mentre la musica continuava dopo la dissolvenza dell’immagine finale e prima che i titoli di coda iniziassero finalmente in silenzio. Nel 2003, Conner ha troncato il nero in modo così lieve, così che i crediti sono iniziati poco prima della conclusione della musica e si sono conclusi in silenzio. Mentre conosco almeno un purista che ritiene che la piena durata del nero faccia una differenza cruciale, sia io che Silva siamo d’accordo che la scelta di Conner del 2003, che minimizza minimamente quella distesa di nero, non fa nulla per sminuire la meditazione metafisica suggerita dal desiderato ritardo di Riley, mentre allevia la sfida durevolmente discutibilmente inutile posta dai crediti in isolamento. Sebbene questo giudizio sul valore fosse uno dei tanti motivi per cui abbiamo scelto l’edizione 2003 come modello per la nostra versione di visualizzazione primaria, abbiamo comunque conservato completamente entrambe le versioni negli archivi di UCLA.
La questione della durata stessa dovrebbe essere sollevata anche nel contesto di problemi più grandi della mostra in galleria. Crossroads è relativamente adatto alla presentazione del museo in quanto la sua ricezione non dipende completamente dalla visualizzazione sequenziale, grazie alla sua rappresentazione ripetuta dell’esplosione della bomba da più angolazioni. Gli spettatori ambulatori che stanno vivendo solo una parte del lavoro possono almeno intravedere e percepire aspetti delle idee più grandi che stanno dietro di esso. Detto questo, le cose cruciali sono mancate in un tale contesto. Uno dei principali strumenti di strutturazione di Conner è il posizionamento della partitura di Gleeson, che utilizza ri-creazioni di suoni rappresentativi e quotidiani, tra cui esplosioni, conti alla rovescia e canto degli uccelli, prima della musica trascendentale e non rappresentativa di Riley. Nelle mostre in galleria, non solo gli spettatori che passano per la maggior parte perdono questo dinamico, ma il continuo looping senza interruzioni rende il pezzo ciclico – una strategia interessante a sé stante, ma non l’intento di Conner. Il looping crea anche la probabilità che alcuni spettatori sperimentino il sequenziamento di Gleeson / Riley in modo inverso e debbano ricostruire mentalmente il progetto di Conner.
Allo stesso modo, l’ultimo colpo del film, che si protrae sul mare per un lungo periodo dopo l’esplosione della bomba, non può essere pienamente sperimentato attraverso semplici scorci. A questo proposito, Crossroads non è certo univoco: gli aspetti chiave della maggior parte delle opere con immagini in movimento non possono essere pienamente veicolate nel contesto di una visualizzazione itinerante e non consequenziale della galleria. Questa fastidiosa condizione è solo una delle tante che puntano a sfide sistemiche poste dalla natura tradizionale dei musei stessi, che sono mal adattate per le opere audiovisive, anche se tali opere costituiscono senza dubbio la principale forma espressiva della vita contemporanea.
Ironia della sorte, gran parte dello sforzo minuzioso che è stato svolto nel nostro lavoro su Crossroads potrebbe essere annullato nella pratica se le condizioni di visualizzazione nell’istituto di visualizzazione fossero inadeguate. Per risolvere questo problema, la Conner Family Trust e la Michael Kohn Gallery hanno negoziato accordi dettagliati con gli acquirenti che considerano sia le questioni archivistiche che presentative, assicurando almeno un certo grado di controllo sia sulla mostra che sulla rimasterizzazione futura, per mantenere il lavoro necessario per i posteri all’interno del portata dell’edizione limitata generata.28]

Still from the 2013 digital remastering of Bruce Conner’s Crossroads, 1976, 35 mm, black-and-white, sound, 37 minutes.

In this way, our work on Crossroads is aimed firmly at the present while remembering the past and anticipating the future. By creating and archiving multiple versions across a variety of platforms, I ultimately wish to suggest that no one version—not ours, nor remastering efforts to come, nor even Conner’s own multiple reworkings of the piece—can be understood as singularly definitive. That notion of authenticity is in transformation as we move further into the postmedium epoch. Crossroads now exists as a work out of time that resurfaces within it. Our multitiered iteration strives to be the best possible rendition in its own historical moment, respecting the prior and enabling the next.

The reconstruction of Bruce Conner’s Crossroads is scheduled to premiere at the Museum of Modern Art in New York on October 28, 2013.
Ross Lipman is Senior Film Preservationist at the UCLA Film & Television Archive in Los Angeles.

NOTES
1. In an e-mail to the author dated July 25, 2013, Michelle Silva, who currently represents the filmmaker’s estate, noted that Conner preferred to render his titles in all capital letters rather than in italics because he “hated letters that looked like they were falling over.”
2. Friend is currently a technical specialist in asset management, film restoration, and digital mastering at Sony Pictures.
3. I briefly discussed the project in an earlier essay, “Problems of Independent Film Preservation,” Journal of Film Preservation 25, no. 53 (1996): 50–51.
4. It is important to note that these terms have slightly different meanings in the museum and film archiving communities. To generalize definitions that will hopefully work for both of these constituencies: Conservation can be understood as the physical maintenance of a prime artifact, preservation as straightforward duplication in a single medium, andrestoration as an interactive process whereby the potentially abstract essence of a work is re-created in a duplicate copy from an imperfect or even fragmentary source or sources by a variety of means.
5. Krauss’s formulation distinguishes between modernist notions of medium specificity and “technical support,” or underlying conventions that help define a medium. The term itself is of great value in describing a digital crisis that encompasses the wholesale dematerialization of artworks across multiple media, and Krauss’s distinction is of particular use in the remastering process.
6. The challenge is so pervasive among contemporary art forms that its consideration has even reached the mainstream media. See Melena Ryzik, “When Artworks Crash: Restorers Face Digital Test,” New York Times, June 9, 2013, www.nytimes.com/2013/06/10/arts/design/whitney-saves-douglas-daviss-first-collaborative-sentence.html.
7. My use of the term black box, which traces to the theater, is functional rather than specific, in that the term itself is semifrequently conflated with black cube in the discussion of moving-image works presented in a gallery or museum context. I here use black box to distinguish well-controlled spaces (primarily in cinematheques) from uncontrolled or semi-controlled gallery spaces, while ultimately hoping to foster the greater implementation of more fully controlled environments within museum settings.
8. It should be noted that the six editions were supplemented by copies—termed artist’s proofs by the Conner Family Trust—for the trust and UCLA.
9. In considering methodological ethics, I continually refer back to Eileen Bowser’s classic short essay “Some Principles of Film Restoration,” Griffithiana, no. 38/39 (1990): 170–73.
10. Bruce Conner, letter to Russell Wagner, Directorate for Defense Information, March 28, 1974.
11. Via the use of tape delays at differing speeds, Riley expanded two separate Yamaha organ tracks to sixteen channels, then folded these down to a two-channel stereo mix. For his score, Gleeson carefully generated naturalistic sound effects on a Moog synthesizer.
12. Although Dolby Stereo was introduced in 1975, it was not widely adopted by film laboratories until after the release of A Star Is Born in 1976.
13. The Conner Family Trust transferred its film holdings to UCLA in 2008. In addition to AMPAS’s preservation materials, UCLA additionally houses all of Crossroads’s original edited production elements.
14. The larger implications of these cultural conditions are best saved for a later discussion.
15. More specifically, we generated 4096 x 3112 10-bit log DPX files of each frame on an Arriscan and archived them on LTO 5 tape. All digital picture work was conducted at NT Picture & Sound in Los Angeles under the supervision of engineer Shawn Jones, a brilliant technical innovator.
16. See Pip Laurenson, “Authenticity, Change and Loss in the Conservation of Time-Based Media Installations,” Tate Papers, October 2006, www.tate.org.uk/research/publications/tate-papers/authenticity-change-and-loss-conservation-time-based-media. It is also the central premise of my essay “The Gray Zone: A Restorationist’s Travel Guide,” Moving Image 9, no. 2 (2009): 1–29.

[Ancora dal 2013 rimasterizzazione digitale di Bruce Conner’s Crossroads, 1976, 35 mm, in bianco e nero, suono, 37 minuti.

In questo modo, il nostro lavoro su Crossroads è puntato saldamente al presente mentre si ricorda il passato e si anticipa il futuro. Creando e archiviando più versioni su una varietà di piattaforme, alla fine desidero suggerire che nessuna versione, né la nostra, né gli sforzi di rimasterizzazione, né le stesse rielaborazioni multiple di Conner, possono essere considerate singolarmente definitive. Questa nozione di autenticità è in trasformazione man mano che ci spostiamo ulteriormente nell’epoca postmedium. Crossroads ora esiste come un lavoro fuori dal tempo che riemerge in esso. La nostra iterazione multilivello si sforza di essere la migliore interpretazione possibile nel proprio momento storico, rispettando il priore e abilitando il prossimo.

La ricostruzione di Bruce Conner’s Crossroads è prevista in anteprima al Museum of Modern Art di New York il 28 ottobre 2013.
Ross Lipman è Senior Film Preservationist presso l’UCLA Film & Television Archive di Los Angeles.

NOTE
In una e-mail all’autore datata 25 luglio 2013, Michelle Silva, che attualmente rappresenta la tenuta del regista, ha notato che Conner preferiva rendere i suoi titoli in lettere maiuscole piuttosto che in corsivo perché “odiava le lettere che sembravano stavano cadendo “.
2. Friend è attualmente uno specialista tecnico in gestione patrimoniale, restauro cinematografico e mastering digitale presso la Sony Pictures.
3. Ho brevemente discusso il progetto in un saggio precedente, “Problemi di conservazione cinematografica indipendente”, Journal of Film Preservation 25, no. 53 (1996): 50-51.
4. È importante notare che questi termini hanno significati leggermente diversi nelle comunità di archiviazione di film e musei. Per generalizzare definizioni che si spera di lavorare per entrambi i collegi elettorali: conservazione può essere inteso come la manutenzione fisica di un manufatto primaria, la conservazione, come la duplicazione semplice in un unico mezzo, andrestoration come un processo interattivo in cui l’essenza potenzialmente astratta di un lavoro è re -creato in una copia duplicata da una fonte o fonti imperfette o addirittura frammentarie con una varietà di mezzi.
5. La formulazione di Krauss distingue tra nozioni modernistiche di media specificità e “supporto tecnico” o convenzioni sottostanti che aiutano a definire un medium. Il termine stesso ha un grande valore nel descrivere una crisi digitale che comprende la smaterializzazione generalizzata delle opere d’arte su più media, e la distinzione di Krauss è particolarmente utile nel processo di rimasterizzazione.
6. La sfida è così pervasiva tra le forme d’arte contemporanea che la sua considerazione ha persino raggiunto i media mainstream. Vedere Melena Ryzik, “Quando Opere Crash: Restauratori Volto di prova digitale,” New York Times, il 9 giugno 2013, http://www.nytimes.com/2013/06/10/arts/design/whitney-saves-douglas-daviss-first- collaborativo-sentence.html.
7. Il mio uso del termine scatola nera, che riconduce al teatro, è funzionale piuttosto che specifico, in quanto il termine stesso è semifrequentemente unito a un cubo nero nella discussione di opere di immagini in movimento presentate in un contesto di galleria o museo. Io qui uso la scatola nera per distinguere spazi ben controllati (principalmente nelle cinematheques) da spazi di gallerie incontrollati o semi-controllati, mentre alla fine spero di favorire la maggiore implementazione di ambienti più controllati all’interno di ambienti museali.
8. Va notato che le sei edizioni sono state completate da copie – prove dell’artista definite dal Conner Family Trust – per la fiducia e UCLA.
9. Nel considerare l’etica metodologica, faccio continuamente riferimento al breve saggio classico di Eileen Bowser “Alcuni principi del restauro cinematografico”, Griffithiana, n. 38/39 (1990): 170-73.
10. Bruce Conner, lettera a Russell Wagner, Direzione per le informazioni sulla difesa, 28 marzo 1974.
11. Tramite l’uso di ritardi del nastro a diverse velocità, Riley ha espanso due tracce d’organo Yamaha separate a sedici canali, quindi li ha ridotti ad un mix stereo a due canali. Per la sua colonna sonora, Gleeson ha accuratamente generato effetti sonori naturalistici su un sintetizzatore Moog.
12. Sebbene il Dolby Stereo sia stato introdotto nel 1975, non è stato ampiamente adottato dai laboratori cinematografici fino a dopo l’uscita di A Star Is Born nel 1976.
13. Conner Family Trust ha trasferito le sue partecipazioni cinematografiche alla UCLA nel 2008. Oltre ai materiali di conservazione AMPAS, l’UCLA ospita inoltre tutti gli elementi di produzione originali di Crossroads.
14. Le maggiori implicazioni di queste condizioni culturali sono meglio salvate per una discussione successiva.
15. In particolare, abbiamo generato 4096 x 3112 file log DPX a 10 bit di ciascun frame su un dispositivo Arriscan e li abbiamo archiviati su nastro LTO 5. Tutto il lavoro di immagine digitale è stato condotto a NT Picture & Sound a Los Angeles sotto la supervisione dell’ingegnere Shawn Jones, un geniale innovatore tecnico.
6. See Pip Laurenson, “Authenticity, Change and Loss in the Conservation of Time-Based Media Installations,” Tate Papers, October 2006, www.tate.org.uk/research/publications/tate-papers/authenticity-change-and-loss-conservation-time-based-media. It is also the central premise of my essay “The Gray Zone: A Restorationist’s Travel Guide,” Moving Image 9, no. 2 (2009): 1–29.

Bruce Conner, Crossroads, 1976, 35 mm, black-and-white, sound, 37 minutes. Still from the 2013 digital remastering.

17. Additional efforts were made to retain the original’s film-grain character in black background titles and white-screen sections, which might otherwise have been replaced by video blacks and pure whites.
18. While one could make a compelling case that all printed-in scratches and blemishes are part of a given found-footage work, our research on Crossroads clearly indicated that Conner liked some of the “problems” present in the film’s source footage but wished others to be corrected.
19. This pulsing is often called density breathing by film restorationists. Video engineers sometimes use the term shading error. I tend to dislike the latter, as its pejorative connotations are misleading when the characteristic is not problematic.
20. Our initial scans encompassed the entirety of the source negative’s image area, ensuring that all photographed content was retained and archived before we embarked on our final reconstruction.
21. Lipman, “The Gray Zone,” 1–29.
22. Ross Lipman, “Technical Aesthetics in the Preservation of Film Art,” in Big As Life: An American History of 8mm Films (New York and San Francisco: Museum of Modern Art/San Francisco Cinematheque, 1998), 92. This essay perhaps best articulates early formulations of my notions of authenticity in moving-image reproduction, later modified and developed more fully in “The Gray Zone.”
23. We conducted our restoration work in 3K resolution (3072 x 2334) to control costs with maximized efficiency, and then boosted the resolution for 4K film-out. Given that the Bikini Atoll source footage from the National Archives was itself a duplicate, the down-res/up-res process involved a truly minimal compromise. As another point of reference, the projected 4K digital cinema resolution of a 1.37 Academy aperture image is 2960 x 2160—less than our working resolution.
24. Our decisions were ultimately based on a rigorous procedure that is best described as LUT-wedging, wherein Shawn Jones at NT Picture & Sound created eighteen custom-modified LUTs for the transfer. LUT stands for lookup table, and broadly refers to the process whereby a digital image is translated from one platform to another, in this case from log film space for digital monitor display to Fuji 35-mm black-and-white digital separation film 4791. Not surprisingly, in such instances a straight application of math will not generally do the trick, especially when dealing with black-and-white stock. In my experience, some photochemical density grading is frequently needed even when the source file is a fully graded program, and contrast problems are common. Jones’s extensive testing yielded one of the best black-and-white film-outs that I’ve seen to date.
25. The original version was preserved to 35-mm film, DVD-R data discs, and LTO tape.
26. Dolby Stereo uses Lt/Rt (Left total/Right total) matrixing to derive the four tracks. Mono sound is matrixed to front center and two-channel stereo to front left and front right, but a slight sound bleed is diverted to the other speakers in both cases.
27. For Riley’s stereo tracks, he employed careful channel separation to isolate discrete center audio and send decorrelated audio to the surround speakers. For Gleeson’s mono score, he used frequency splitting to a similarly controlled purpose, with the express aim of avoiding the creation of specific effects. It should be noted that if one sent identical signals to different speakers, our hearing process would perceptually create its own front/center emphasis depending on where one was seated. The ear uses delays to help determine directionality, and when identical sounds arrive at both ears at once, we tend to center them. Frequency splitting helps create a sense of surround in this context. For this reason, I jokingly refer to the Gleeson section of the film as being “mono surround,” although the usage doesn’t precisely match the term’s technical definition.
28. Detailed exhibition and duplication agreements between museums and artists are becoming increasingly essential as the technologies that enabled the creation and display of specific works become obsolete.

Special thanks to Dave Cetra, Jean Conner, Jan-Christopher Horak, Michael Kohn, Shawn Jones, John Polito, Michelle Silva, and the staff of Cinetech.
(bY ARTFORUM)

[Bruce Conner, Crossroads, 1976, 35 mm, bianco e nero, suono, 37 minuti. Ancora dalla rimasterizzazione digitale del 2013.

17. Ulteriori sforzi sono stati fatti per mantenere il carattere di grana della pellicola originale in titoli di sfondo nero e sezioni di schermo bianco, che altrimenti sarebbero stati sostituiti da video neri e bianchi puri.
18. Mentre si potrebbe fare un caso convincente secondo cui tutti i graffi e le imperfezioni stampate fanno parte di un determinato lavoro di found footage, la nostra ricerca su Crossroads indica chiaramente che Conner ha apprezzato alcuni dei “problemi” presenti nel filmato del film ma desidera altri da correggere
19. Questo pulsare viene spesso chiamato respirazione a densità da parte dei restauratori di film. I tecnici video a volte usano il termine errore di ombreggiatura. Tendo a detestare il secondo, poiché le sue connotazioni peggiorative sono fuorvianti quando la caratteristica non è problematica.
20. Le nostre scansioni iniziali comprendevano l’intera area dell’immagine del negativo della fonte, assicurando che tutto il contenuto fotografato fosse conservato e archiviato prima di intraprendere la nostra ricostruzione finale.
21. Lipman, “The Gray Zone”, 1-29.
22. Ross Lipman, “Estetica tecnica nella conservazione dell’arte cinematografica”, in “Big As Life: An American History of 8mm Films” (New York e San Francisco: Museum of Modern Art / San Francisco Cinematheque, 1998), 92. Questo saggio forse meglio articola le prime formulazioni delle mie nozioni di autenticità nella riproduzione delle immagini in movimento, successivamente modificata e sviluppata più pienamente in “The Gray Zone”.
23. Abbiamo condotto il nostro lavoro di restauro in risoluzione 3K (3072 x 2334) per controllare i costi con l’efficienza massimizzata, e quindi potenziato la risoluzione per il film-out 4K. Dato che il filmato della sorgente Atollo Bikini degli Archivi Nazionali era di per sé un duplicato, il processo di down-res / up-res comportava un compromesso veramente minimo. Come ulteriore punto di riferimento, la risoluzione del cinema digitale 4K proiettata di un’immagine di apertura di 1,37 Academy è 2960 x 2160-inferiore alla nostra risoluzione di lavoro.
24. Le nostre decisioni si basavano fondamentalmente su una procedura rigorosa che è meglio descritta come LUT-wedging, in cui Shawn Jones di NT Picture & Sound ha creato diciotto LUT modificate per il trasferimento. LUT è l’acronimo di lookup table e si riferisce in generale al processo mediante il quale un’immagine digitale viene tradotta da una piattaforma all’altra, in questo caso dallo spazio della log room per il monitor digitale al film di separazione digitale in bianco e nero Fuji 35 mm 4791. Non sorprende che, in tali casi, una semplice applicazione della matematica generalmente non faccia il trucco, specialmente quando si tratta di azioni in bianco e nero. Nella mia esperienza, alcuni gradi di densità fotochimica sono spesso necessari anche quando il file sorgente è un programma completamente classificato e problemi di contrasto sono comuni. I numerosi test di Jones hanno prodotto uno dei migliori film in bianco e nero che ho visto fino ad oggi.
25. La versione originale è stata conservata su pellicola da 35 mm, dischi dati DVD-R e nastro LTO.
26. Dolby Stereo usa la matrice Lt / Rt (Left total / Right total) per ricavare le quattro tracce. Il suono mono è matricizzato in primo piano e stereo a due canali in anteriore sinistro e anteriore destro, ma in entrambi i casi viene emessa una leggera emissione del suono verso gli altri diffusori.
27. Per le tracce stereo di Riley, ha impiegato un’attenta separazione dei canali per isolare l’audio del centro discreto e inviare l’audio decorrelato ai diffusori surround. Per la colonna sonora mono di Gleeson, ha usato la suddivisione della frequenza per uno scopo simile controllato, con l’obiettivo esplicito di evitare la creazione di effetti specifici. Va notato che se si inviavano segnali identici a diversi diffusori, il nostro processo uditivo creerebbe percettivamente il proprio accento frontale / centrale a seconda di dove si era seduti. L’orecchio usa ritardi per aiutare a determinare la direzionalità, e quando i suoni identici arrivano a entrambe le orecchie contemporaneamente, tendiamo a centrarli. La suddivisione della frequenza aiuta a creare un senso di surround in questo contesto. Per questo motivo, mi riferisco scherzosamente alla sezione di Gleeson del film come “surround mono”, sebbene l’uso non corrisponda esattamente alla definizione tecnica del termine.
28. Gli accordi dettagliati di esibizione e duplicazione tra musei e artisti stanno diventando sempre più essenziali poiché le tecnologie che hanno permesso la creazione e la visualizzazione di specifiche opere sono diventate obsolete.

Un ringraziamento speciale a Dave Cetra, Jean Conner, Jan-Christopher Horak, Michael Kohn, Shawn Jones, John Polito, Michelle Silva e lo staff di Cinetech.

[FONTI: ARTFORUM: Google Traduttore
Il lungo testo che viene qui riproposto serve per affrontare un dibattito che sembra ambiguo e complicato. Si rivolge a chi? A quale stereotipo americano? L’intellettuale engagé, fuori dagli schemi, o ad un pubblico più vasto che capisce le metafore della scrittrice? Usando come prova il Google Traduttore si complica ancor di più il senso di tutto il racconto. Arte nell’arte, ovvero riprendere dagli altri per poi modificare a proprio piacimento il contenuto, la materia, con l’ausilio del traduttore automatico, grimaldello dell’era digitale. Come può la scuola adattarsi alla novità tecnologica se non ha stimoli? I ragazzi usano il traduttore automatico inconsapevolmente, riprendono frasi o aneddoti che forse hanno altri significati.

The long text presented here is used to face a debate that seems ambiguous and complicated. It is aimed at who? What American stereotype? The intellectual engagé, out of the box, or a wider audience that understands the writer’s metaphors? Using as proof the Google Translator gets even more complicated the sense of the whole story. Art in the art, that is, to take back from the others and then to modify the content, the material, with the help of the automatic translator, pick of the digital age. How can the school adapt to technological innovation if it has no stimulation? The boys use the automatic translator unknowingly, they pick up sentences or anecdotes that perhaps have other meanings.]